Turkkmenistan

social studies

Country Basics

Turkmenistan is a country in central Asia bordered by the Caspian sea and largely covered by the Karakum Desert.

Capital is Ashgabat.

The meaning of the flag is featured as a white cresant (symbol of Islam) and five stars. The stars represent the five regions of the country. Upon a green field is a symbolic representation of the country's famous carpet industry.

Geography

Turkmenistan is a country with a small population which is located in the continent/region of Asia.Countries near Turkmenistan include Uzbekistan, Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.Its biggest cities and towns include Aşgabat, Türkmenabat, Dasoguz and Balkanabat. Desserts and mountains are the landforms of the Central Asian Turkic state of Turkmenistan. Specifically, over three-fourths (3/4) of the country is taken up by Karakum Desert. Additionally, the Turan Depression ensures that desert conditions prevail in the central portion of the country as well. The landmarks are Gonur Tepe, Ruhyy'et palace, Neutrality Monument, Turkmen Carpet Museum, and Namazga-Tepe. Thje major bodies of Turkmenistan are L-Lakes of Turkmenistan, R-Rivers of Turkmenistan, S-Springs of Turkmenistan, and G-Garabogazkol.

It's longest border is with the Caspian Sea Turkmenistan is slightly larger than California in territory, occupying 488,100 km. By area Turkmenistan ranks fourth among the former Soviet republics, after Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The country's greatest extent from west to east is 1,100 km, and its greatest north-to-south distance is 650 km.

Government

The Turkmenistan Manat is the currency in Turkmenistan. The United States Dollar is the currency in American Samoa, British Virgin Islands, El Salvador, Guam, Marshall Islands, Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Puerto Rico, United States, Turks and Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands, Timor-Leste, Ecuador, Johnston Island, Midway Islands, and Wake Island. The United States Dollar is also known as the American Dollar, and the US Dollar. The symbol for USD can be written $. The Turkmenistan Manat is divided into 100 tenga. The United States Dollar is divided into 100 cents.

Economy

Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea to the west, Iran and Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the north-east, and Kazakhstan to the north-west. It is the southernmost republic of the Commonwealth of Independent States the loose federation created at the end of 1991 by most of the post-Soviet states. The Turkmenistan Manat is the currency in Turkmenistan. The United States Dollar is the currency in American Samoa, British Virgin Islands, El Salvador, Guam, Marshall Islands, Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Puerto Rico, United States, Turks and Caicos Islands, Virgin Islands, Timor-Leste, Ecuador, Johnston Island, Midway Islands, and Wake Island. The United States Dollar is also known as the American Dollar, and the US Dollar. The symbol for USD can be written $. The Turkmenistan Manat is divided into 100 tenga. The United States Dollar is divided into 100 cents.

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Culture

Shifting winds create desert mountains that range from two to twenty meters in height and may be several kilometers in length. Chains of such structures are common, as are steep elevations and smooth, concrete-like clay deposits formed by the rapid evaporation of flood waters in the same area for a number of years. The major language is Turkmen and Russian. They are poor.

Climate

Turkmenistan has a cold desert climate that is severely Continetal. Summers are long (from May through September), hot, and dry, while winters generally are mild and dry, although occasionally cold and damp in the north. Most precipitation falls between January and May; precipitation is slight throughout the country, with annual averages ranging from 300 millimeters (11.8 in) in the kopet dag to 80 millimeters (3.15 in) in the northwest. The capital, Ashan, close to the Iranian border in south-central Turkmenistan, averages 225 millimeters (8.9 in) of rainfall annually.

Almost 80% of the territory of Turkmenistan lacks a constant source of surface water flow. Its main rivers are located only in the southern and eastern peripheries; a few smaller rivers on the northern slopes of the Kopetdag are diverted entirely to irrigation. The most important river is the Amu Darya, which has a total length of 2,540 km from its farthest tributary, making it the longest river in Central Asia. The Amu Darya flows across northeastern Turkmenistan, thence eastward to form the southern borders of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

History

In the 8th century, Turkic-speaking Oghuz tribes moved from Mongolia into present-day Central Asia. Part of a powerful confederation of tribes, these Oghuz formed the ethnic basis of the modern Turkmen population. In the 10th century, the name "Turkmen" was first applied to Oghuz groups that accepted Islam and began to occupy present-day Turkmenistan. There they were under the dominion of the Seljuk Empire, which was composed of Oghuz groups living in present-day Iran and Turkmenistan.Turkmen soldiers in the service of the empire played an important role in the spreading of Turkic culture when they migrated westward into present-day Azerbaijan and eastern Turkmenistan.