Ch. 7 Assessing & Teaching Reading

Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Word Recognition

by Angela, Cara, Catie, and Wendi

Literacy Quiz!

What do you remember from our Literacy Courses?

Today, you are going to learn about a variety of evidence-based practices to teach struggling readers. This is very important for you to learn because you will encounter readers at varying levels in your classroom and these practices will assist them in their learning process.

Linguistic Approach

-Onset-Rime and Word Families

  • The use of the linguistic approach and linguistic readers provides struggling readers with multiple opportunities to learn and practice onset-rime patterns

  • Phoneme level instruction + onset-rime instruction = greatest gains in reading

  • The linguistic approach is built on onset-rime patterns: (this is from page 206)

  • Word families: related groups of words which are segmented and blended at the onset-rime level

  • Two ways to decode unknown words:
Unknown word: flat

  • Segment at the onset-rime level:

1. Cover /at/ and say /fl/
2. Cover /fl/ and say /at/
3. Blend the whole word together, say /flat/

  • Analogy method:
1. Think of another word with the same rime pattern; ex-cat

2. Substitute the initial sound /c/ with /fl/ to make /flat/

  • Sight words and less phonetically regular words are kept to a minimum.

  • Example of beginning text from a typical linguistic reader:
(this is from page 214)

Text like this gives students extensive practice with word families. It systematically introduces onset-rime patterns.

Reinforcement activities

· Word sorts by families

· Word walls using o-r patterns

· Word family houses

Cautions of using the linguistic approach

· Texts provide limited opportunities for development of comprehension

-Narrative and expository literature shoud be incorporated into reading programs to develop listening comprehension

· When words are introduced into a family, they may represent unfamiliar or abstract concepts

-Ex-“the fog in the bog"

Programs for students who haven’t mastered decoding and comprehension skills:

· Reading Mastery: Rainbow Edition

-Elementary level

· Corrective Reading

-Grades 4-12

· Both are meant for small to medium groups

· Direct instruction model


Picture Association

Picture Association Technique

What is the Picture Association Technique?

The Picture Association Technique is a strategy used to assist students in forming visual images that facilitate their identification of words.


You will want to select words that your student(s) are experiencing difficulty with when reading.

When teaching the strategy, use the following steps:

1) Place each picture in front of students and say the name of each one as you present it. Instruct students to practice repeating the names of the pictures.

2) Place the word next to each picture it represents. Have students practice saying the names of the words

3) Instruct students to match the words to the picture and say the name of the word as they are matching it. Repeat process until students are able to easily match the pictures with the words.

4) Now, place the words in front of the students and have them identify the words as you say them. If students are unable to identify the word, instruct them to imagine the picture in their head. If they still cannot identify the word, show them the picture that goes with the word.

5) Show the word cards to students and have them identify one word at a time. If students cannot recall the word, instruct them to look at the picture that goes with the word.

6) Continue this process until all students can identify all words automatically. You can use a record sheet to track student’s progress.

7) Lastly, have students review the words on subsequent days and give them ample opportunities to read the words in text.

Caution: This technique should be used only as supplemental instruction. Students should be given numerous opportunities to read and identify the words in text.


· Allows readers to associate the word with a visual image

· Helps students associate a spoken word with its written form

· Helps students with learning disabilities increase their vocabulary

  • Hence, vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of successful reading. A highly evolved vocabulary enhances a student’s ability to infer meaning and comprehend what is read.

Phonemic Remedial Reading Lessons

Developed in the 1930s for students with mild cognitive disabilities to learn phonics analysis skills.

Lessons use principles of direct instruction:

· Minimal change

· 1-to-1 correspondence of syllable to response

· Progression from easy to hard

· Frequent review and overlearning

· Corrective feedback

· Verbal mediation

· Multisensory learning

This system is not for use with the majority of learners. It is an intensive phonics program for use with one to a maximum of three students.


1) Readiness Level

· Sound-Symbol Association

/a/ /c/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /l/ /m/ /p/ /s/ /t/ /w/

2) Proceed to first lesson

· Four parts

1. Initial consonant changes

2. Final consonant changes

3. Both initial and final consonants change

4. Spacing between letters becomes normal

3) Some sight words and controlled reading, frequent review

NOTE: There is no strong emphasis on comprehension. If using this system, make sure to include concepts like reading for meaning, etc.

Word Study

Making Words

  • Teacher gives students specific set of 15 letters and guides students to make various words
  • Begins with 2-letter words and progresses to 5 or 6-letter words
  • Example: Teacher might have students make the word ‘at’ in order to eventually create the word ‘snatch’

Word Sorting

  • After recording the words that were constructed, teacher leads students to analyze the words, finding similarities and differences, and identifying spelling patterns
  • Example: Teacher might take the word ‘can’ and direct students to locate the other words that begin with ‘c’

Making Words Quickly

  • Students use the letters in their specific set to make as many words as possible
  • Students use a log, and begin with the words created already, and then have 2 minutes to record any other new words

Word Study Benefits

  • Activities have been proven to be effective for students with learning disabilities and behavior problems
  • Allows students to develop more sophisticated and analytical decoding and spelling skills


Summative Assessment

OH NO! The InTASC police are here!

Your ticket out of this room is to prove that you can name two evidence-based practices for assessing and teaching reading.