Brown vs Board of Education

By: Dylan Minshew

The Ruling of Brown Vs Board of Education

On May 17, 1954, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren delivered the unanimous ruling in the landmark civil rights case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. State-sanctioned segregation of public schools was a violation of the 14th amendment and was therefore unconstitutional. Arguments were to be heard during the next term to determine just how the ruling would be imposed. Just over one year later, on May 31, 1955, Warren read the Court's unanimous decision, now referred to as Brown II, instructing the states to begin desegregation plans "with all deliberate speed."

How the ruling affects African Americans educational opportunities

The ruling affected African Americans by giving them what the whites had but in a different way. For example African Americans had books, pencils, notebooks etc... just like the whites. The materials were beaten up and were passed on from the white schools. The lunch and classrooms that the African American schools had were trashed the janitors would not and could not keep up with the mess the students made. therefor everything at the African American schools looked worse but equal. the reason being that the schools were worse is because the African American schools would not receive the money they needed form the states and cities like the white schools had received.
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Leandro vs North Carolina

The Ruling of Leandro vs North Carolina

A number of urban school districts were allowed to intervene in the Leandro lawsuit. They raised a second and equally important issue. They claimed that their schools were burdened with large numbers and heavy concentrations of disadvantaged and more-costly-to-educate students. Therefore, they argued that the State Constitution requires North Carolina to provide schools anywhere in the state with "adequate" resources to fully educate disadvantaged - that is, poor, special education and Limited English Proficient -- students.

How the ruling affects African Americans educational opportunities

The NAACP fought to end “separate but equal” schools several decades ago,

not just to seat black children beside white children, even though that is a good thing. It is also a mandate of the U.S. Constitution. We fought because “separate but equal” produced systemic inequities in teacher pay, school curriculum, textbooks, transportation, and other opportunities.

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Swann vs Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

The ruling of Swann vs Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, case in which, on April 20, 1971, theSupreme Court of the United States unanimously upheld busing programs that aimed to speed up the racial integration of public schools in the United States.

How the ruling affects African Americans educational opportunities

"The African american struggle for desegregation," observes Gary Orfield, co-director at the Harvard Civil Rights Project and among the nation's leading experts on desegregation, "did not arise because anyone believed that there was something magical about sitting next to whites in a classroom. It was, however, based on a belief that the dominant group would keep control of the most successful schools and that the only way to get full range of opportunities for a minority child was to get access to those schools."

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