Preventive Care

By: Vance Howerton

Pap Smear

- During this procedure doctors are looking to identify cancerous or precancerous cells on the cervix. They do this by scraping away cells from the cervix and testing to see if they are growing abnormally (which indicates cancerous/precancerous).

- This test is only for women

- Generally women start getting the Pap Smear at age 21

- Should get one every two years


Pap Smear. (2016). Healthline. Retrieved 16 March 2016, from


- The mammograms procedure is to determine whether or not someone has breast cancer. This procedure is done by taking x-ray images of both breasts. This allows for doctors to see tumors that cannot be felt. It also allows for doctors to diagnose breast cancer even if the patient has no symptoms.

- This test is for women

- Should start in early 40s

- From age 40-44 it is up to the patient whether they want one but at 45 -54 they should get one every year. After 54 they can switch to once every two years or stay on yearly test.


Mammograms. (2016). National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 16 March 2016, from

American Cancer Society recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms. (2016). Retrieved 16 March 2016, from

Testicular Exam

- The testicular exam is a self examination of the testicles to feel for lumps on the testes. These lumps can be signs of testicular cancer and those who notice these should see a doctor. The best time for this test is in the shower and is done simply by rolling the testicle between your fingers checking for abnormalities.

- This test is for men

- It is good to start this examination as a teen because testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men under 35

- Should be done periodically to continue to check for healthy testicles


Testicular self-exam. (2016). Retrieved 16 March 2016, from

Prostate Exam

- This test involves a doctor feeling inside the rectum and feeling for abnormalities. They have to go through the rectum because the prostate is right there. They are feeling for bumps which indicate prostate cancer

- This test is for men

- Should be started between age 40-50

- To schedule further exams is up to the doctor. If your family has a history of prostate cancer you may be tested more often than those who do not.


American Cancer Society recommendations for prostate cancer early detection. (2016). Retrieved 16 March 2016, from

Early Detection & Screening - Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) . (2016) Retrieved 16 March 2016, from