Hyphens and Dashes
By: Brandon Wilkins, Casey Greene, and Caden Harris
They are used to make some compound words.
Like great-great-grandfather, maid-in-waiting, and three-year-old.
Use a hyphen to form new words beginning with the prefixes self-, ex-, all-, and half-. Also use a hyphen to join any prefix to a proper noun, a proper adjective, or the official name of an office. Use a hyphen before the suffix -elect.
self-contained ex-governor all-inclusive half-painted
pre-Cambrian mid-December president-elect
Use a hyphen to join the prefix great- only to the names of relatives.
Hyphens can be used to separate numbers from words in sentences, such as “She has stopped buying 2-liter bottles and has started buying 0.5 liter bottles, instead.”
Use a hyphen to join two or more words that serve as a single adjective (a single-thought adjective) before a noun.
In real life I am a large, big boned woman with rough, man-working hands.
Use common sense to determine whether a compound adjective might be misread.
a phrase heat-and-serve meal off-and-on relationship
a noun + adjective oven-safe handles book-smart students
a noun + participle (ing or ed form of a verb) bone-chilling story
Hyphens can also be used to separate numbers such as ninety- nine or forty-four
Use a hyphen to join a capital letter or lowercase letter to a noun or participle.
T-shirt Y-turn G-rated x-axis
Near the semester's end-and this is not always due to poor planning-some students may find themselves in a real crunch.
To set off an Introductory Series
A good book, a cup of tea, a comfortable chair-these things always saved my mother’s sanity.
To Set Off and Emphasize Parenthetical Material
A single incident-a tornado that came without warning-changed the face of the small town forever.
To indicate Interrupted Speech
Why-why are you doing this to me?
For other emphasis
After several hours of hearing the high-pitched yipping, Petra finally realized what it was-coyote pups.