Modern Era


Chinese reject British requests for open trade policy. "Our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance, there was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians"


Napoleon invades Egypt, hoping to cut off British communications to India


Famine and Rebellions in Japan


First opium wars in China

The British made about 17 million spanish dollars by selling opium to China. Finally, China noticed the millions addicted to this "medicine" so Commissioner Lin Zexu led a campaign against this drug. Thus creating the treaty of Najing also known to the Chinese as a unequal treaty, as it was mainly on British terms.


Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire

Idea of a strong and newly recentralized state. Many called the Ottoman Empire the "sick old man of Europe" due to it seeming like it was always just lagging behind and limping its way through the centuries


Taiping uprising in China

Hong Xiuquan, proclaimed himself as the young Jesus and sought out a certain form of Christianity. Believed he was to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace"


Second opium war in China

Western nations plus Japan and Russia had carved out all spheres of influence within China, granting themselves special privileges. The idea of a informal empire occured here as China was no longer the center of civilization to which barbarians paid homage and tribute.


Admiral Perry arrived in Japan

Led four ships into the harbor at Tokyo Bay, seeking to re-establish for the first time in over 200 years, regular trade and discourse between Japan and the western world.


Meiji Restoration in Japan

A takeover of young samurai from southern Japan who restored the power of a fifteen-year-old boy whose throne name was Meiji, or enlightened rule. Their goals were to save Japan from foreign domination not by futile resistance, but by a thorough transformation of Japanese society drawing on all that the modern West had to offer.


Sino-Japanese War

Conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and the weakness of the Chinese Empire. The War grew out of conflict for the supremacy of Korea.


Ethiopian defeat of Italy preserves Ethiopia's independence

Ethiopian forces under the leadership of Menelik II surprised the world by defeating an Italian Army sent to conquer the empire.


Boxer Rebellion in China

Led by militia organizations calling themselves the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. They killed numerous Europeans, and many Chinese Christians and laid siege to the foreign embassies in Beijing.


Russo-Japanese War

A War fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.


Young Turk takeover in Ottoman Empire

The Young Turks pushed for a radical secularization of schools, courts, and law codes; permitted elections and competing parties; established a single Law of Family Rights for all regardless of religion; and encouraged Turkish as the official language. Also open up modern schools for women, and allowed them to wear Westernized clothing.


Japan annexes Korea

The Emperor of Korea gave the Emperor of Japan all sovereignty of Korea, thus making it apart of the Japanese Empire. (Said to have taken place through mutual agreement/consent)


Chinese revolution; end of Qing dynasty

A group of Revolutionaries in Southern China led a successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty, thus establishing in its place, the Republic of China.