This Great Philosopher
Distinguished Mystical Spirit
He lived very simply and wore a robe resembling Khirqa Sufi
This great philosopher distinguished mystical spirit and deeply religious. He lived very simply and wore a robe resembling Khirqa Sufi. Man contemplative warehouse, he avoided worldly joys and pleasures. The only pleasure Farabi was music. Being an excellent performer, he loved to participate in small "concerts". He wrote a great book about music, indicating knowledge of mathematical philosopher and influenced the music theory of the middle Ages. Philosopher and musician looking for consonance and Wisdom, trying to reach an agreement between the teachings of Plato and Aristotle, between philosophy and prophetic religion. Magister Secundus was convinced that the first owners of wisdom were the Chaldeans of Mesopotamia, from their knowledge transferred to Egypt and then to Greece, where it was recorded in writing, and that its share fell back this knowledge to a country where it was born. His vast legacy includes comments lost to works of Aristotle: "Organon", "Physics", "and meteorology “,” Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics".
Among his other works: large treatise "On the agreement between the teachings of the two sages, Plato and Aristotle"; treatise "Object isledovanija various books of Aristotle Metaphysics"; comments to the dialogues of Plato; treatise "The fact that you need to know before studying philosophy"; introduction to the philosophy of Aristotle; treatise "On Science" (al-Ulum Ihsa), who had a great influence on the classification of the sciences in the western scholasticism; treatise "On intelligence and thinking"; "Gems of Wisdom" (Fosus al-Hikam) deeply studied in the East.Finally, a group of treatises, which can be arbitrarily combined into a body of "political philosophy" Farabi, first of all, "Treatise on the opinions of citizens committed Cities" (Ideal City); "The book is about managing the city"; "The book is about finding happiness"; comment to the "laws" of Plato. It is necessary to highlight on the "gems of wisdom". There are no serious reasons to question the authorship of this book Farabi.
The recent release of the collection in Cairo, in which a part of this treatise is placed under a different heading under the name Avicenna, does not hold water. Paul Kraus believed that Farabi had antimisticheskim mood and style and content "Gemma" is not consistent with his other works, the prophecy that his theory is purely "political" in nature. Despite this, the Sufi terms are scattered all works Farabi; except for "Gemma" there is one of his text containing echoes of the famous story about the nature of Plotinian ecstasy ("Often, waking up in himself ..."); theory of illumination at Farabi contains mystical elements that cannot be ignored. In addition, the mystic is not necessarily insist on Ittihad (merging into one) between the human intellect and active Intellektom35, but often postulates ittisal (match without identification), also a mystical experience. Avicenna and Suhrawardi, as well as Farabi, deny Ittihad because it entails contradictory consequences. Not so hard to grasp the connection between the "mysticism" Farabi and the rest of his doctrines. There is no gap or dissonance. If the "gems" perceive terms Ismaili origin (common, however, for all gnosis irfan), this is not a reason to deny them authenticity. This observation shows us the only possible sources that inspired Farabi, because prophetic philosophy is in agreement with profetologiey Shiism.
Finally, wrongfully "politicize" in the modern sense of the word doctrine of the ideal city; it has nothing to do with a political agenda. At this point we are in complete agreement with a magnificent study of philosophy Farabi, made by Mr. Ibrahim Madkour. In this essay we will touch on only three key points philosophical doctrine Farabi. Firstly, it belongs not only logical, but also a metaphysical Distinction between essence and existence of created beings. Existence has for being determined by the nature; it is only its predicate accidents. We can say that this thesis was a milestone in the history of metaphysics. Avicenna, Suhrawardi and many others also defended the metaphysics of substance. Only Mulla Sadra in the XVII century. Made a revolution in the theory. Mulla Sadra claimed superiority of existence with a "existentialist" version Ishraq metaphysics. From this position, implies the difference between the required and the possible existence Being that cannot exist by itself, because its existence and non-existence are indifferent. The existence of created beings becomes possible due to the necessity of being. This thesis, so important in the philosophy of Avicenna, was already contained, but in a less articulate form at Farabi.