Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, and Dyscalculia
What is a Learning Disability?
- Dyslexia- primarily refers to problems with reading, but can also affect writing, spelling, and even speaking.
- Dysgraphia- affects the ability to write.
- Dyscalculia- trouble with numbers and math concepts.
1 out of every 5 people in the united States has a learning disability
Major Characteristics of Learning Disabilities:
- There is a discrepancy between oral and written work.
- Works at a slower pace than his/her peers.
- Unable to keep focus and concentration.
- difficulty with memorization.
- Difficulty following oral directions, especially instruction with multiple steps.
- The student has little confidence.
- Low self-esteem and self confidence with his/her work.
- high intelligence and understanding but difficulty putting it into organized writing.
*It is important to remember that these common characteristics do not just interfere with academics and the students ability to learn in the classroom, but can also interfere with interacting socially with family or peers.
- Scaffolding- Teachers will give appropriate support to the student and gradually give less support until the student is able to complete a task independently. Instructors and classrooms that use this practice view themselves and other materials as "mediators" to the students learning abilities. Scaffolding includes teacher support, feedback, and using instructional materials such as visual aids to facilitate reading.
- PQ4R method- Preview the material, question the material, read the material, reflect on the material, recite the material, and review the material. This is most often done with reading comprehension and has been shown to be an effective technique in helping students with a learning disability retain and organize the information from the text.
- Reciprocal teaching- Both the teacher and student read similar materials and then come together and talk about the text. The teacher first leads discussion by demonstrating strategies such as asking questions and summarizing the text. The student then leads discussion and demonstrates the same techniques used by the instructor. Guided practice is given until the student has reached a higher level of reading comprehension and the goal of being able to take meaning away from text.
Calculators, audio recordings, and specialized paper are just a classroom materials that can accommodate students with dyscalculia, dyslexia, and dysgraphia in order for them to be successful and confident in their ability to complete a task.
Graphic organizers are useful to a student with a reading disability.
Specialized paper for students with dysgraphia.
Tape recordings of instruction or text accommodate students with reading, memorizing, and processing problems.
Additional Resources and Data-based Instructional Strategies and Accommodations-
School isn't the only place where your child can work on skills related to his or her learning disability. Fun and encouraging activities can be done at home to practice reading, writing, and math.
- For Dyslexia-
- Outline and Summary
- For Dyscalculia-
- For Dysgraphia-
- Alternate endings
- Key and common vocabulary words
Learn with Homer App
Learn with Homer is an app for students with learning disabilities help practice and master skills through fun activities. Skills it uses are sight words, phonics, spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension.
Learn with Homer App
A Child’s Story (2015). Trouble with letters. Retrieved from https://www.understood.org/en/tools/through-your-childs-eyes/player?simq=c07181bd-05a5-466c-aaa0-f54146a9d844&gradeId=d6b26d19-313c-49d9-8594-912c0e5be6a3&standalone=true.
Fletcher-Flinn, C. M. (2016). Developmental Dysgraphia as a Reading System and Transfer Problem: A Case Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 1-10.
Gonsalves, N., & Krawec, J. (2014). Using number lines to solve math word problems: A strategy for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (Wiley-Blackwell), 29(4), 160-170.
Joseph, L. (2010). Best practices in planning interventions for students with learning disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/best-practices-planning-interventions-students-reading-problems.
Stein, M. T., & Lounsbury, B. (2004). A child with a learning disability: navigating school-based services. Pediatrics, 1141432.
Ted Talks (2015, Jun 11). My world without numbers. Retrieved from
Zebron, S., Mhute, I., & Musingafi, M. C. (2015). Classroom challenges: working with pupils with communication disorders. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(9), 18-22.
Zirkel, P. A. (2001). Courtside - Sorting out which students have learning disabilities. Phi Delta Kappan, (8).