Mining and Fracking

Parsa Rashidi

Two Types of Mining

  • Surface Mining -
Surface mining is the removal of topsoil and overburden overlying a mineral deposit


  • Subsurface Mining -
Subsurface mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological minerals from Earth

> Parts of Surface Mining

Open-pit Mining

- Surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from an open-pit


Effects on Environment: Damaging because of environmental hazards and strategic minerals are generally located in small concentrations

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Strip Mining

- Removal of soil and rock above a layer and removing of exposed minerals


Effects on Environment: Damages wildlife, forests, and landscapes at the mine site

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Mountain-top Removal

- Any method of surface coal mining that destroys a mountaintop or ridge-line


Effects on Environment: Destroyed more than 500 mountains and rubble of mountain tops in rivers provides health threats to plants and animals

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> Parts of Subsurface Mining

Drift Mining

- Process of cutting open the side of a mountain that results in a drift


Effects on Environment: Damage in the sides of Earth and pollution

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Slope Mining

- Method of accessing geological material through mining in a sloping access shaft


Effects on Environment: Contamination of water and soil, and erosion

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Shaft Mining

- Form of underground mining where shafts are pushed vertically from top to bottom to excavate minerals


Effects on Environment: Toxic particles are released in the air and water

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Fracking

- Process of drilling down into the earth before a high-pressure water mixture releases the gas inside


> Water, sand, and chemicals are implanted in the rock at high pressure allowing gas to flow out


Effects on Environment: More than 600 chemicals of toxins are in fluids that release carcinogens polluting water

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