Mining and Fracking!

Mining!

Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, is the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside.

Surface

Subsurface

Slope

is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards desired material. Slope mines differ from shaft and drift mines, which access resources by tunneling straight down or horizontally, respectively.

Drift

Drift mining is either the mining of an ore deposit by underground methods, or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed. Drift is a more general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed (of coal, for instance) or vein of ore. A drift may or may not intersect the ground surface.

Shaft

refers to the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.