Assignment 1

Unit 30

Describe the hardware and software used to create and edit graphic images

Graphics card -

A graphics card is a card that gets inserted into the computer consists of a graphics processing unit designed to help process and display images, especially 3D graphics. Usually a graphic card reduces the strain off the processor because the processor is already running at a high speed and it is also doing the graphics for the computer this is where the graphic card come into place and takes the role of the processor.


The limitations within the graphics card are

- You need to cool them down as they get very hot.

- They cost a lot more than integrated graphics cards.
- They are a pain to replace.
- They become outdated very quickly.



Internal memory - RAM

RAM stands for random access memory RAM is made up of small computer chips that form memory module this memory module can be put onto the motherboard via RAM slots.

Every time a program is loaded up it gets loaded from the hard-drive into the RAM.


The limitation of a RAM could be that a power outage will cause irrecoverable data loss, unless there is some power backup system like a laptop battery.


ROM -

ROM stands for read only memory, ROM has the instructions when the computer is getting booted up before the system loads up. In computers the instructions are read from a small program in the ROM, called the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System).


The limitations with ROM are can be same as the RAM limitations for example a power outage will cause irrecoverable data loss.


GPU -

The GPU stands for “graphics processing unit” just like the central processing unit it runs of one chip but the GPU is used just for computing 3D functions for example 3D lighting and object motion. To complete this the GPU has to complete very fast mathematical calculations and this is what GPU is and what it does.


The limitations of the graphics processing unit can be


CPU-

The Central Processing unit is a primary component that processors instructions. The CPU controls applications and Operating systems it processors the data and displays an output to the screen.

The CPU has at least one processor but if it has two processors it is called a dual core processor this does not mean you can not get more than two you can get up to eight on high end CPU’S.


Hard drive -

HDD is hard disk drive that runs on a platter and all this platter is , is a stack of discs that runs on magnetic storage to keep all of your data and storage safe.


Sound card -

A sound card is a card that is used to control the input and output of sound files on a computer. The sound card is managed by the computer user to hear or listen to the sound via music and video files and also from video games. A sound card is very similar to the graphics card it does the same job apart from the graphics card shows graphics and the sound card gives out sound.


Mouse -

A computer/pc mouse is a small peripheral input device that a computer user pushes across a desk or surface in order to point to a cursor on a display screen and to select one or more actions to take from that position.


Keyboard -

A keyboard is basically a board of keys. Along with the mouse, the keyboard is one of the primary input devices used with a computer. A keyboard allows you to insert text into the monitor and search for items or create documents.


Printer -

A printer is a peripheral device that allows the computer user to find documents or photos off the computer and print them so that the photo or document comes out of the device on paper.


Photoshop -

An image editing software and manufactured by adobe. Photoshop is considered one of the leaders in photo editing software. The software allows users to manipulate, crop, resize, and correct colour on digital photos.


Digital camera -

A camera which produces digital images that can be stored in a computer and displayed on screen.


The differences between Vector and bitmap.

Explain the difference between the two (e.g. typical use, file size, scaling).


A vector is a image that uses different lines types of shapes and lines to complete the image.


A bitmap graphic is composed of many tiny parts called pixels which are often many different colours.


The differences between the two are that vector graphics use more processing power that bitmaps , Bitmaps are made up of pixels where as vectors are made up of lines and calculations.

Within bitmaps the images are less precise than vectors as vectors have the better graphic , the memory usage on bitmaps is a lot higher than the memory the vectors have. Aswell as memory the storage space on bitmaps is a lot more than the storage space vecotrs use.


Lossless compression:


Lossless compression is a technique where no data is lost from the compression of a file. This is done my signifying redundant data within the file then reducing the image size.

If you have an image that is 4MB that file could be reduced to 3.5MB by using a GIF file to complete this compression.


Lossy compression:


Lossy compression is where data is lost from this type of compression. This is done by removing unimportant parts of a file an example are removing unused colours from the image.

This is how lossy and lossless compression occurs.


Format - JPEG

Typical Use / Bitmap / Vector - Photographs

Features

Limitations -

  • relatively small file sizes

  • 16.7 million different colours

  • supported by a wide range of software programs

  • does not support transparency

  • does not preserve layers

lossy compression


Format - BMP


Typical Use / Bitmap / Vector - to create realistic graphics and images

Features -

a small file size and the ability to scale the image to any size without loss of quality; see the image above. They are ideal for logo designs, as they can be printed very small on business cards or printed large on a billboard poster.


Limitations - They can be very large, particularly if the image contains a large number of colors. Data compression can shrink the size of pixel data, but the data must be expanded before it can be used, and this can slow down the reading and rendering process considerably. Also, the more complex a bitmap image (large number of colors and minute detail), the less efficient the compression process will be.




Format - GIF

Typical Use / Bitmap / Vector - you typically use a gif for simple logos, icons, or symbols


Features - These features include file compression, transparency, interlacing and storage of multiple images within a single file which allows for a primitive form of animation


Limitations - They have a maximum colour depth of 256 bit, Other image and animation formats have much larger bit depths but 265 bit is normally well suited to a webpage. They can slow a webpage down, If large numbers of them are used on a webpage it can take a very long time for them all to load.The often have a ‘Blocky’ or ‘Pixely’ appearance, GIFs can give a blocky quality to images that are animated reducing the overall quality.




Format - PNG -

Typical Use / Bitmap / Vector - PNG files were developed to build upon the purpose of gifs. Designers need the ability to incorporate low-resolution images that load quickly but also look great, too. This is where PNG comes in. PNG-8 does not support transparency, but PNG-24 and PNG-32 do


Features-

Portable Network Graphics format is based on a lossless compression algorithm that maintains the original image quality corresponding to a small file size after compression. An advantage over GIF images is the higher compression resulting in a smaller file size, but PNG images do not support multiple images on the same file.


Limitations - This filetype is lossless and compressed, however it can take longer than JPEG to save files, and they come out a little larger than JPEGs, however, there is no quality loss at all, even if you re-open and re-save it as PNG. As a consequence, the PNG files cannot include animations, as compared to GIF images.




Format - SVG

Typical Use / Bitmap / Vector - SVG is used in many business areas including Web graphics, animation


Features - SVG images and their behaviors are defined in XML text files. This means that they can be searched, indexed, scripted, and compressed. As XML files,

SVG images, being XML, contain many repeated fragments of text, so they are well suited for lossless data compression algorithms.


Limitations - Only supported in modern browsers (although it is possible to work-around this limitation)

Can’t make overly complex images like photographs



Format - PSD

Typical Use / Bitmap / Vector - Images and Individual layers


Features - PSD files can handle simple vector layers, making them more suitable for importing and exporting data from programs like Adobe Illustrator. PSD also supports masks, color profiles, alpha channels and spot colors.


Limitations - PSD files lose their major advantage , PSD files with layers are somewhat smaller than corresponding TIFF files





Format - tiff

Typical Use / Bitmap / Vector - TIFF (Tag Image File Format) is a common format for exchanging raster graphics


Features - The ability to store image data in a lossless format makes a TIFF file a useful image archive,


Limitations - Large file sizes, around 20mb for a 10 megapixel image, so larger storages devices needed for long term archival use.



Good specification computer needed to process and load images.

M1Compare the limitations

Software -


Paint and Photoshop.

Paint is very basic by allowing you to complete basic things for example cropping , resizing an image , add text and shapes. Paint is a free software and a built in software in all windows computers this is why this software is so basic.

On the other hand there is photoshop this is very complex with many more tools than paint for example in photoshop you can use filters , layers , brighteners , lightening and a lot more. Compared to paint photoshop is used for progressive graphic manipulation and also unlike paint that is free photoshop is quite expensive.


Hardware -


Graphics card -


When buying a graphics card you need to think what you computer is going to be used for , if you are only using it for basic operations a low spec graphic card could be advised for example a 512MB graphics card. If you are going to be using it for gaming you are going to be wanting a more advanced graphics card to be able to allow you to run it smoothly and have the best graphics you can have a suitable graphics card for this could be 2GB GTX graphics card.


RAM

512MB DDR2

8GB DDR3


A computer with a graphics card requires a large amount of RAM to run effectively. If you want your computer to run smoothly and have better perfromance you are better of using the 8GB rather than a 512MB. The 512MB is not appropriate for a graphics computer because it will keep on crashing and run very slow but if you purchase the 8GB this will run smoothly it will work with the computer to give you the best use of your computer and gaming.


Sound card -


When buying a sound card you need to think what you computer is going to be used for , if you are only using it for basic operations a low spec sound card could be advised for keeping the basic pre fitted sounds. If you are going to be using it for gaming and movies you are going to be wanting a more advanced sound card to be able to allow you to run it smoothly and have the best sound you can have a suitable sound card for this could be an ASUS sound card.


Hard Drive -


The hard drive you have currently within the computercould be 80GB which is not big enough to save all of your files so to be able to do this you could buy a 1TB hard drive so that you will be able to save all the files that you need within the hard drive than saving then in a different location.


Mouse and keyboard -


I would recommend that if you are using your compuet for basic uses just keep your mouse and keyboard that you have no matter how basic it could be wereas a gaming computer could need a more advanced keyboard and mouse that is able to work on your desired game.



CPU -

Dual core

Quad core


Depending what use your computer is you can get dual or quad core CPU if you are not wanting your computer for too much you might use word and powerpoint and things like this a dual core will run this and make your computer great to use but if you want your computer for gaming you can purchase a quad core which is twice more power that the dual core and it will run your computer better for when you are playing your games.

Most graphic designers go for the highest possible CPU as graphics tend to consist of a lot of instructions and the more instructions the processor can deal with the faster the graphic program will run as most graphics program such as Adobe Photoshop operations take a lot of processor speed.


Camera -


If you are a graphics designer you will be more likely to use a digital camera because they are portable and high in memory most graphics designers will want to add effects to the images when they are uploaded to the computer so this is why they will use a digital camera.

D1 Evaluate the impact of evolving output mediums on the design and creation of graphic images

The impact of output mediums continuously changing, on design and the creation of graphic images are, they are getting more better, portable and safer to use.


Some examples of output mediums are mobile phones , printers , graphics cards , monitors.


Mobile phones -

Mobile phones once were very big very wide and were extremely heavy and also had antennas on them to get better signal these phones had no screen and all numbers this has changed so much in the last 10 years. Moving on from the older phones the newer phones for example the iphone 6 is completely touch screen and can have over a million things inside them., such as games, apps, videos, music pictures and much more junk to fill up a phone. These phones now have HD cameras and video recording they have everything you need in daily life. This HD camera can help in graphics because you want the best possible camera you can for the images you are going to be wanting to upload to the monitor.


Monitor -

Monitors have changed rapidly, by their appearance, hardware and new features that have been developed on the new monitors. when the first monitors came out they wee bulky and only displayed a black and green screen, they didnt have many features they were slow and just not completely usable to everyday life. The monitors are now made of mostly LCDthis ensures the quality of the monitor is always high and the pixels are of high resolution which is a great benefit for the graphic designers because as stated above about uploading the HD images off the new phones you are going to want a high resolution monitor to show these images and help with your graphic designs.


Printers -

This type of output medium has changed massively over the years, the first printers were very slow and large and some didnt even show colour to a graphics designer this is not good at all you are going to want a printer that scans , copys and mainly prints in great quality. To achieve this you need the LCD monitor as stated above and you need the printers that are form this day and age. Their are some printers which are expensive as they are targeted to graphic users and businesses instead of document users, these can cost up to £40,000 and these printers have evolved rapidly since the old bulky printers.


Graphics -


The graphics have changed a lot on each of these output mediums, it is mostly shown by the quality of the pictures and videos that you view. The graphics on games on mobile phones have increased by making games look more impressive and run better while playing. The graphics also look more realistic while playing games. If you are a graphic designer it goes by the name "graphics" that you are going to want the best graphics card you can get and these are very expensive but you get the quality you expect unlike the older models of graphics cards.