physics catalog

christian mcitnosh and shawn shaw


The loudspeakers in your radio, TV or stereo system use varying electric current through an electromagnet to create sound. The electric current varies at a fast rate, causing the strength of the magnetic field to vary. This results in moving the loudspeaker membrane or cone back and forth rapidly, resulting in sound and even music.cost: $10 to $300

Electric motor

An electric motor is an even more clever application of electromagnets. Suppose you put some electromagnets on a wheel and put some permanent magnets around the wheel. The electromagnets could be made to attract and repel the surrounding magnets, causing the wheel to turn.cost: $30 to $3,000


A generator works in exactly the opposite way to that of an electric motor. A wire loop is rotated between two magnets (representing a stationary magnetic field). This generates an electric current in the wire loop, which can be utilized in many different ways.cost: $300 to $2,000

Particle Accelerators

Particle accelerators, like the now-famous Large Hadron Collider, increase the energy of a beam of particles and provide it with directionality. Huge magnets, known as dipoles, are employed to change the path of a high-energy stream of particles. Quadrupole magnets are used to converge the particles. These magnets are superconducting electromagnets, allowing for a very strong magnetic field capable of bending the path of particles traveling at a speed close to that of light.cost: billions of dollars to make and run

Electromagnetic Locks

 popular application of electromagnets is in security systems. Electromagnetic locks, also known as maglocks, consist of a coil of wire wrapped around a metal core. When electric current passes through the coil, the core becomes an electromagnet. It attracts a metal plate on the same side of the door. This is called an 'armature plate'. This results in 'locking' of the door. Maglocks are available in two types (depending upon mechanism of operation). These are called 'fail safe' and 'fail secure'.cost: $400 to $1,000

Magnetic Levitation Trains

Popularly known as Maglev trains or simply Maglevs, these are high-speed trains that have powerful electromagnets to levitate (lift), guide, and move them. The electromagnets lift the train to a few millimeters above the tracks. This greatly reduces friction, which is one of the main hindrances to achieving speed in any kind of transportation. The movement and speed of the train is also regulated by the electromagnets. These trains have been touted as the future of high-speed transportation. As of now, however, Maglevs are in operation in only a few countries of the world.cost: $1,000,000,000,000

My own

my invention would involve a floating elavator that uses two maggnets to keep in in balance and to liftit up and down by using the positive and negative sides to go up and down and have a weaker maggnet on the bottom so it dosnt go up and down to fast. this would look cool adn be vary practical to use since it just uses magnets.cost: 500,000 per elevator


was a prominent soviet physicist, famous for his discovery of the self focusing of light, pioneering studies of light-matter interactions, and the discovery and investigation of the interactioncosmics breaks of high-energy particles with condensed matter. Askaryan also showed that  showers emit electromagnetic radiation, thus giving yet another way for their detection.  Before him it was commonly assumed that electron-photon showers do not emit electromagnetic radiation since the electrons and positrons are created in pairs. Askaryan’s analysis led to the conclusion that in an electron-photon shower there is an excess of negative charge (excess of electrons). These excess electrons are knocked out from atoms either by photoeffect or by shower electrons and positrons (ionization). At the same time, due to the annihilation process the number of positrons decreases. Thus, there is an electric current created by the excess electrons associated with shower. This variable current is the source of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, every shower is the source of electromagnetic radiation. These studies opened new perspectives for distant registration of cosmic ray showers.