Deoxyribonucleic Acid

The three things that make up DNA

What is DNA?

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that is found in every nucleated cell in the human body. The main role of DNA is the long term storage of information and it is often referred to as the 'blueprint for life' as it carries all of a person's genetic information.DNA is made up of a long chain of simple units called nucleotides, with a backbone made of sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphate atoms joined by ester bonds. The chain molecules exist in pairs twisted together to form a double helix.

What does DNA do?

DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce. To carry out these functions, DNA sequences must be converted into messages that can be used to produce proteins, which are the complex molecules that do most of the work in our bodies.

Each DNA sequence that contains instructions to make a protein is known as a gene. The size of a gene may vary greatly, ranging from about 1,000 bases to 1 million bases in humans. Genes only make up about 1 percent of the DNA sequence. DNA sequences outside this 1 percent are involved in regulating when, how and how much of a protein is made.

What is RNA?

Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule.It is implicated in a varied sort of biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes

Messenger RNA is synthesized from a gene segment of DNA which ultimately contains the information on the primary sequence of amino acids in a protein to be synthesized.

Ribsomal RNA and protein combine to form a nucleoprotein called a ribosome.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) contains about 75 nucleotides, three of which are called anticodons, and one amino acid.
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