Working With Special Needs

Helping Parents Understand More

Types of Disorders

Inclusion, Autism, Dysgraphia, ADD/ADHD, Hearing Impaired, Visual Impairment, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Down Syndrome, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dyspraxia, Emotional Disturbance (ED), Behavioral Disorder (BD), Intellectual Disability.

Down Syndrome

A genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21. This genetic disorder causes lifelong intellectual disability and developmental delays, and in some people it causes health problems. This disorder can be in all different levels of severity. Down syndrome is the most common genetic chromosomal disorder and cause of learning disabilities in children.

Emotional And Behavioral Disorder (EBD)

A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a degree that affects a child's educational performance:
  • An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors
  • An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers
  • Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
  • A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
  • A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school factors.

As defined by the IDEA, emotional disturbance includes schizophrenia but does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

Hearing and Visual Impairment

Hearing Impairment is the impairment of the sense of hearing. Its an abnormal condition in which a person experiences a deterioration or loss of hearing. Hearing impairment can also include muffled hearing and distorted hearing.

Visual impairment is the impairment of the sense of sight. Visual Impairment includes a range of vision loss, including low vision.

Funtionally Mentally Disorder (FMD)

This is typically where a child has a disability that does not fit into a category, but it affects a child's mood, actions, and their day life.

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Defines the individualized objectives of a child who has been found with a disability. The IEP is meant to help children reach educational goals more easily than they would otherwise. In all cases the IEP must be used to meet the individual student's needs as identified by the IEP evaluation process, and must especially help teachers and related service providers understand the student's disability and how the disability affects the learning process.


Changes permissible in educational environments which allow the student equal opportunity to obtain access, results, benefits, and levels of achievement. These adaptations consist of both accommodations and modifications.