Kidney Stones

By: Stephanie Peller

Sources

1. Website: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews URL:http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.unwsp.edu/ehost/detail/

2. Website: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews URL:http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.unwsp.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=640bd105-94dd-49fd-81c3-324d283d959c%40sessionmgr198&hid=127&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=chh&AN=CD007044&anchor=ID0E1CAC

3. Website: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

URL: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.unwsp.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=640bd105-94dd-49fd-81c3-324d283d959c%40sessionmgr198&hid=127&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=CD008569&db=chh

Definitions and Word Analysis

Hypocalciuria: excessive amount of calcium in the urine

hyper (P): excessive

calci (R): calcium

-uria (S): urine


Urolithiasis;

ur/o (CF): urination

lith (R): stone

-ia (S): condition

-sis (S): state of, condition


Nephrolithiasis: commonly called kidney stones

Nephr/o (CF): kidney

lith (R): stone, calculus

-iasis (S): condition


Nephrology: the study of the kidney

Nephr/o (CF): kidney

-logy (S): study of


Lithotripsy: the crushing of stones with a medical device

Lith/o (CF): stone

-tripsy (S): crushing

Summary

Kidney stones are made up of calcium salts, struvite, uric acid, cystine, and/or other materials. Kidney stones are caused by hypocitraturia, which are low citrate levels in urine.


There are many treatment options including minimally invasive techniques and open surgery.Some techniques include ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy, surgical removal, PUL (Percutaneous Ultrasonic Lithotripsy) or drinking a lot of water and waiting for them to pass. There are medications that help to prevent it in the future.


Patients all around the world suffer from kidney stones regardless of their race, ethnicity, location, or age. Men ages 40-60 are the most affected by kidney stones. Once someone is diagnosed with kidney stones, their chances of getting them again increase significantly. About half of the people that get kidney stones get them again within the next ten years.

Works Cited

Liu, Liang Ren. 2013. "Percussion, diuresis, and inversion therapy for the passage of lower pole kidney stones following shock wave lithotripsy." Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews no. 12: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed March 17, 2016).


Srisubat, Attasit. 2014. "Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) versus percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) or retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for kidney stones." Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews no. 11: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed March 17, 2016).


Phillips, Rebecca. 2015. "Citrate salts for preventing and treating calcium containing kidney stones in adults." Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews no. 10: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed March 17, 2016).