13.3 Social Area Analysis

By Kobe Kimmes

Sector theory model

The sector model, also known as the Hoyt model, is a model of urban land use proposed in 1939 by economist Homer Hoyt. It is a modification of the concentric zone model of city development. The benefits of the application of this model include the fact it allows for an outward progression of growth. As with all simple models of such complex phenomena its validity is limited.


Concentric model

The Concentric Zone model is a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings. The Concentric Zone model was the first to explain the distribution of different social groups within urban areas. It was originally based off Chicago (although the model does not apply well to Chicago today). The model was created in 1923 by E.W. Burgess, Robert Park, and Roderick McKenzie?. The idea behind this model is that the city grows outward from a central area in a series of rings. The size of the rings may vary, but the order always remains the same. This model suggests that the social structure extends outwards from the central business district, meaning that the lower classes live closer to the city center, while the upper classes live farther from the city center because they can afford the commute. Also, as you get further away from the city density decreases. The rent tends to increase as you get further away from the CBD and residents are more likely to rent near the center. As you get further away from the CBD it is more likely that you will find condominiums. Indianapolis is a city that can be applied to the concentric zone model today. That is because more people rent near the CBD than away from it. However, this model has its weaknesses. It does not take into account any physical barriers and it does not take into account gentrification- which may occur in these cities.


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Primary Models of Urban Growth in the U.S.
Census tract - defined