The Sun

By: McKenzie Craft

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The Layers of the Sun

The Sun's Core

The Sun's Core is the center of the Sun. This is the area where 99% of the Sun's nuclear fusion energy comes from.

The Radiative Zone

This is the layer of the Sun that is outside of the Core, separating it and the Convection Zone. This is where the energy produced in the Core is transferred to the next layer by radiation and conduction.

The Convection Zone

The Convection Zone is the layer of the Sun in which energy is transferred outward through the process of convection. It is also believed that the Sun's gravitational pull is generated from this layer.

The Photosphere

The deepest layer of the Sun that we can observe directly. This is the "surface" of the Sun, the first outer layer. This layer stays between 11,000 and 6700 degrees Fahrenheit.

The Chromosphere

The Chromosphere is the second outermost layer of the Sun. This layer stretches for about 250 miles above the Photosphere. The farther away from the surface of the Sun you get in this layer, the warmer the temperature.

The Corona

The Corona is the outermost layer of the Sun. This is the ring of light that you see during a solar eclipse. The Corona cannot be seen with the naked eye and there is no limit to the Corona.

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Solar Events

Sunspot

Sunspots are dark areas that form on the Photosphere of the Sun. They form due to temperature changes in the Sun's surface. They appear darker since they are cooler than the rest of the Sun. They often appear in pairs with one spot being on one end of an axis and one on the other.

Solar Prominence (aka filament)

A solar prominence is a blast of plasma and gas that shoots thousands of miles into space and then curves back towards the Sun to form an arch. They are held like this by the gravitational pull of the Convection Zone. These can last for months and usually explode, causing massive amounts of solar material flying out into space.

Solar Flare

A solar flare is a magnetic storm that occurs on the surface of the Sun. It appears as a very bright spot and then a gaseous explosion. The explosion sends very large amounts of energy thousands of miles into space. These flares can cause sunquakes, which would rank at about an 11.2 on the Richter Scale.

Aurora (aka polar light)

Auroras are natural light shows that occur due to solar activity. They occur in Arctic and Antarctic regions when a region in the atmosphere is disturbed by great amounts of solar wind. This disturbance forms the plasma that causes the light shows that are auroras.

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Sources

https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/992/flashcards/2034992/jpg/1003b1352131699689.jpg

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_zone

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http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/interior.shtml

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http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/images/cutaway_sm.jpg

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http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hinode/solar_020.html

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http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/iris/multimedia/layerzoo.html

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http://www.thesuntoday.org/overview/layers-of-the-sun/

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http://www.fhshh.com/upload/7/a8/7a8094577988f413.jpg

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http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/review/violins/sunspots_big.en.jpg

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunspot

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http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/sun/prominences.shtml

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https://i.ytimg.com/vi/Qva-aKeLSbI/maxresdefault.jpg

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http://qrznow.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/aurora-boreal.jpg

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurora