DICTIONARY MYTHOLOGICAL PLANTS

FOR ERASMUS+ PROJECT

PINUS

SCIENTIFIC NAME OF PINE

family: PINACEAE

genus: PINUS

species:

VULGAR NAMES

English: PINE

Basque: PIÑUA

Spanish: pino

Italian:

modern Greek:

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MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION

Pines are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees (or rarely shrubs) growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall.

The smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, and the tallest is a 268.35-feet (81.79-meter) tall ponderosa pine.

Bark chips

The barkof most pines is thick and scaly, but some species have thin, flaking bark.

The branches are produced i a very tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year.

The spiral growth of branches, needles, and cone scales are arranged in Fibonacci number ratios.

The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; they are covered in brown or whitish bud scales and point upward at first, then later turn green and spread outward. These "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the soil and vigour of the trees.

Pines are long-lived, typically reaching ages of 100–1,000 years, some even more. The longest-lived is the Great Basin bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old. This tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old. It was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal.

1st mythologycal story : PYTIS

Pitys was a forest nymph so beautiful that she attracted both the satyr Pan and the stormy Boreas, the Wind of the North.
When she had to choose between the two gods, Pitys bestowed her favors upon Pan, since Pan was making less noise. Insulted and thirsty for revenge, Boreas tossed Pitys from a rock.

When Pan found the nymph unresponsive, he took pity on her and transformed her into his sacred tree, the pine tree. From then on, the nymph weeps every time the North Wind blows. Her teardrops are the droplets of pine resin that dribble down each autumn of the year.
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USES, THREATS and SINGULARITY

Food:

Many types of pine needles can be used to make a tea rich in vitamin C. Simply steep a handful of needles for 5-10 minutes. The longer you steep them, the less vitamins will remain, so don't overdo it.

It's important to note that some pine needles are poisonous. Make sure to learn the differences between the edible and non-edible varieties before making pine needle tea.

Pine nuts from all varieties . pine are edible, although some are small and not typically harvested. They can be a little tricky to harvest and perish quickly once they are shelled but can be stored longer if left in their shells or roasted.

Inner pine bark and pine resin are edible; male pine cones and their pollen can also be eaten. Native Americans chewed pine resin as sort of a natural chewing gum. The inner bark of large pine trees is edible, and the bark from young pine twigs can be eaten as well.


Medicine:

Pine resin is a natural antiseptic and disinfectant. It also has antimicrobial and antifungal properties. It can be directly applied to wounds or sores and helps keep germs out. Pine resin can also be used to staunch the flow of blood.


Waterproofing and other uses:

Pine resin can be used as a waterproofing agent and works well on tent seams, boots and mittens.

Heat pine resin up and mix with ashes or charcoal from your campfire to make glue. Once cooled, the glue will harden but can be easily heated up again when it is needed

PINE SYMBOLISM

Pine tree symbolism includes creativity, life, longevity and immortality.
Pine Cone - Immortality and Fertility
The ancient Greeks and Assyrians viewed the pine cone "as a symbol of masculinity because of its phallic shape. It formed the apex of the thyrsus staff, which represented both fertility and immortality".

As the emblem of Artemis, it represented feminine purity.

It was also the emblem of the Roman goddess Venus (Aphrodite).

In Christianity, the pine cone forms the crown of the Tree of Life, the Christ`s cross wood, and the symbol of resurrection: Christmass tree.
In the Chinese culture, the pine tree symbolizes longevity / eternal youth and steadfastness

2nd mythologycal story: SINIS THE "BIG BENDER"

Theseus came to the area of the Isthmus of Corinth, where he encountered the infamous "Sinis the Pine-bender". Sinis would ask travellers to help him bend a huge pine, and would unexpectedly let go throwing the traveller to his death, against the mountainside. Already knowing Sinis' methods, Theseus tricked Sinis himself, into being thrown by the pine.
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