Blood

Madison Narges

Overall blood characteristics

Blood compostion:

55%- plasma

45%- erythrocytes (red blood cells)

<1%- leukocytes

<1%- platelets


Average person has 1-1.5 gallons of blood


Blood is produced in red bone marrow


Erythropoietin regulates the production of blood

Plasma

Characteristics: 90% water looks like a clear liquid in which red and white blood cells and platelets are suspended


plasma is know as the fluid matrix of blood and it helps maintain blood flow


Donated plasma is used in trauma situations and given to patients that are in need of plasma. It is done by drawing blood the plasma is then separated from the rest of the blood by spinning the blood at fast rate creating a layer of plasma separate from the blood. The rest is returned to the blood stream.

(Erythrocytes) Red blood cells

Characteristics: Bio concave disk shape with no nucleus and filled with hemoglobin.


Red blood cells help maintain homeostasis by transporting oxygen and hydrogen ions


Hematocrit test: tests to see if there are too many or too little red blood cells in the blood done by taking a sample of blood and spinning it separating the red blood cells out of the rest of the blood so the amount of red blood cells can be determined


Importance of hemoglobin in red blood cells: carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and returns carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs


hemoglobin test: measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood which is done by taking taken a sample of blood and sending it to a lab for results


Anemia: not having enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to tissues


-Iron deficiency anemia: Not enough iron to create hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body possible treatment is an iron supplement


-Hemolytic anemia: Bone marrow can not replace red blood cells that are being destroyed possible treatment is iron and folic acid supplements to replace the blood cells being lost as well as a possible immune suppressed if it is overactive


-Hemorrhagic anemia: Loss of blood therefore there is not enough oxygen being transported to the tissues possible treatment would be a blood transfusion


-Sickle cell anemia: There aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry enough oxygen to the tissues, red blood cells are in a crescent moon shape and are rigid and sticky the only real cure would be a bone marrow transplant although blood transfusions, medication for pain, and supplemental oxygen are available to make living with it possible


-Pernicious anemia: Intestines cannot absorb vitamin B12 therefore cannot create red blood cells solutions are a shot or supplement of B12 to raise its levels


-Polycythemia: Abnormality in the bone marrow that makes red blood cells causing too many red blood cells to be made as well as other blood cells such as white blood cells and platelets. This excess thickens the blood risking blood clots possible treatment would be taking blood out, low dose blood thinners, and medication to reduce blood cells


-Blood donation can be done every 8 weeks and involves a needle put into the sanitized arm and wait until about a pint of blood is collected it is then matched with someone in need of blood with the same blood type, one donation of blood can help up to 3 different people although it can only be stored for up to 42 days

Leukocytes (white blood cells)

White blood cells are all nucleated and lacks hemoglobin. It is capable of moving and defends the body against infection


The function of white blood cells is to eat any foreign material in the body to help protect against infection. If an infection does come into the body the number of white blood cells increases to help fight it .


There are five types of white blood cells neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages.


-Leukopenia: a decreased number of white blood cells and is treated by simulating the bone marrow with medications such as steroids so increase the production of whites blood cells


Leukemia: a cancer in blood forming tissue causing the bone marrow to produce dysfunctional white blood cells. Although difficult to treat things such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, target therapy as well as stem cell transplants


Mononucleosis: Mono is a strong infection in the body causing the white blood cell count to increase as the body's way to try and fight it. The best way to recover from mono is to rest and drink water becasue antibiotics do not work agasint this kind of infection

Thrombocytes (Platelets)

Platelets are a piece of a larger cell called a megakargocyte (not blood cells) they are biconvex in shape and non nucleated.


They help maintain homeostasis by assisting in blood clotting when there is an injury.


Three things happen during hemostasis which is the process that makes bleeding stop and keeps blood inside the damaged vessel:

1.vascular spasm- constricts hurt blood vessel to reduce blood flow

2. Platelet plug formation- platelets stick together blocking the exit of blood flow

3. Coagulation/ blood clotting: reinforces platelet plug with fibrin threads


Hemophilia is a genetic condition in which blood does not clot properly it can be treated with replacement therapy which is putting a concentrate of clotting factors into the blood stream through an I.V.


Coumadin:used to prevent heart attacks or strokes by preventing blood clots by thinning the blood.


Heparin: is naturally occurring and helps stop the formation of blood clotting as well as allows the body to break down those already formed. It is used for things like atrial fibrillation, pulmonary embolism and heart surgery


Aspirin: it is used to treat as well as prevent heart attack and stroke it is used as a mild blood thinner to prevent blood clots.

sites

"Anemia Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diet, and Treatment." WebMD. WebMD, 12 June 2012. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"BioLife Plasma." Donate Plasma. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"Platelet Count: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Aug. 2013. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


"University of Rochester Medical Center." University of Rochester Medical Center. 4 July 2012. Web. 17 Mar. 2014


"White Blood Cell." MedicineNet. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.