Types of Mining and Fracking

Melanie Flowers

Surface and Subsurface Mining

Surface Mining- There are certain techniques to mine the ore bed when its close to the surface. Its less expensive and its safer then subsurface mining. There are three types of surface mining, Open-pit mining, Strip mining and Mountain top removal.

Open-Pit Mining

  • Used when there is a very large area that an ore bed lays on
Strip mining
  • Removal of rock over a layer a coal
Mountain top removal
  • Where the tops of mountains are removed, exposing coal


Subsurface Mining- This is where the ores and other minerals lie far beneath the ground, making the extraction difficult. They gain access to these minerals by creating a horizontal tunnel or a vertical tunnel , which is dangerous. There are three types of subsurface mining, Slope, Drift and, Shaft mining.

Slope mining

  • A sloping mine travels downwards diagonal, instead of vertical or horizontal.

Drift mining

  • Horizontal passage way into the mine

Shaft mining

  • Vertical passage way into the mine

Examples Surface and Subsurface mining

Example of Surface mining


  • Strip mining- Mountains are blown apart, leaving permanent damage on landscape
  • Open-pit mining- Exposes mountains and rocks
  • Mountain top removal- Destroys mountains
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Oil Fracking

Oil fracking is a type of drilling that has been used fro about 65 years. Its involes tapping shale and of rocks by drilling a mile or maybe even more beneath the surface, then turning horizontal and continuing the drilling process. This effects the environment in a bad way, because during this gas and toxic chemicals leach out of the pipes and contaminate groundwater near by.
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