All women should get a mammogram every 2 years, starting at age 50 to 74. A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast, to check for breast cancer. During the mammogram, women's breasts are pressed between 2 plates, which is uncomfortable for a minute, but the pressure only lasts a few seconds. Most breast cancer is genetic.
Women should get a pap smear starting at the age of 21 or when you start being sexually active. You should get one at least every 3 years. It screens for cervical cancer. You can get cervical cancer by being sexually active with someone who has HPV. This cancer is quiet common so if you get tested regularly, you can usually catch it in time.
Men should get a testicular exam starting in teenage years, but even baby boys should get checked throughout life. They look for irregular bumps, tenderness, or changes in size.