Reproductive System Disorders

By Kate Duran


Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus grows outside your uterus.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Painful periods
  • Excessive menstrual bleeding
  • Abdominal pain


Treatment for endometriosis is usually with medications or surgery.

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome is a rare, life-threatening complication of certain types of bacterial infections. Usually caused by the use of tampons.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • A sudden high fever
  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Vomiting or diarrhea
  • Headaches


If you develop toxic shock syndrome, you'll likely be hospitalized. In the hospital, you'll be treated with antibiotics while doctors seek the infection source. Surgery may be necessary to remove nonliving tissue (debridement) from the site of infection or to drain the infection.

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts
  • A lump or enlargement in either testicle
  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum


Depends on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, overall health, and own preferences. Options include surgery to remove your testicle, surgery to remove nearby lymph nodes, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy.


Gonorrhea is an infection caused by a sexually transmitted bacterium that can infect both males and females. Gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum or throat. In females, gonorrhea can also infect the cervix.

Signs and Symptoms:

In many cases there are no symptoms.

In men:

  • Painful urination
  • Pus-like discharge from the tip of the penis
  • Pain or swelling in one testicle

In women:

  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • Painful urination
  • Vaginal bleeding between periods, such as after vaginal intercourse


Adults with gonorrhea are treated with antibiotics.


Mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue. Mastitis most commonly affects women who are breast-feeding.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Breast tenderness or warmth to the touch
  • Generally feeling ill (malaise)
  • Breast swelling


Mastitis treatment usually involves antibiotics, self-care, or pain relievers.

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)

BPH is age-associated prostate gland enlargement that can cause urination difficulty.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Urinary frequency
  • Urinary urgency
  • Difficulty urinating


Treatments include medications that relax the bladder or shrink the prostate, surgery, and minimally invasive surgery.

Yeast Infection

Yeast infection is a fungal infection typically on the skin or mucous membranes caused by candida.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Vaginal itching
  • Vaginal discharge that is usually white, thick, clumpy, and odorless
  • Red, irritated skin around the opening to the vagina


Treatment options for a vaginal yeast infection, include nonprescription vaginal medicine, prescription oral or vaginal medicine, or nonprescription vaginal boric acid capsules.


Epididymitis is an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • A swollen, red or warm scrotum
  • Testicle pain and tenderness, usually on one side
  • Painful urination or an urgent or frequent need to urinate


Epididymitis is usually treated with antibiotics.


Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation.

Signs and Symptoms:

  • Milky nipple discharge
  • Hair loss
  • Headache


Treatment depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, contraceptive pills or other hormone therapies can restart menstrual cycles. Amenorrhea caused by thyroid or pituitary disorders may be treated with medications. If a tumor or structural blockage is causing the problem, surgery may be necessary.

List of STI


Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection. You may not know you have chlamydia because many people never develop the signs or symptoms, such as genital pain and discharge from the vagina or penis.

Genital warts

Genital warts are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections. At least half of all sexually active people will become infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus that causes genital warts, at some point during their lives. Women are somewhat more likely than men to develop genital warts.


Gonorrhea is an infection caused by a sexually transmitted bacterium that can infect both males and females. Gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum or throat. In females, gonorrhea can also infect the cervix.


Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection that affects men and women. Features of genital herpes include pain, itching and sores in your genital area. But you may have no signs or symptoms of genital herpes. If infected, you can be contagious even if you have no visible sores.


HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left untreated, HIV can lead to the disease AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections. If left untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get infections or infection-related cancers. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease.


Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. The disease starts as a painless sore — typically on your genitals, rectum or mouth. Syphilis spreads from person to person via skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores.


Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a parasite. In women, trichomoniasis can cause a foul-smelling vaginal discharge, genital itching and painful urination. Men who have trichomoniasis typically have no symptoms. Pregnant women who have trichomoniasis may be at higher risk of delivering their babies prematurely.