Immune System

Function of the Immune System:

This system is composed of many specialized cells, proteins, tissues and organs. It works to defend us against a large group of microorganisms and germs that we're exposed to daily. The system does a very good job of preventing diseases and infections to keep us healthy.


Pathogen - a virus/microorganism that can cause disease.

Active Immunity - the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.

Passive Immunity - the short term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.

Antigen - a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.

Antibody - a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.

Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria and not viruses.

Antibiotics block specific metabolic pathways in bacteria. Bacteria is very different to human cells so human cells are not affected. Viruses require host cells to carry metabolic processes for them and so antibiotics cannot be used to treat viruses.

Explain at least one major disorder that occurs with this system and HIV/AIDS.

HIV - People develop a flu-like sickness within a month or two after the virus enters the body. This sickness, known as primary or acute HIV infection, may last for two weeks. Signs and symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, rash, chills, sore throat, mouth or genital ulcers, swollen lymph glands,

Eczema - This is a medical condition in which patches of skin become rough and inflamed, with blisters that cause itching and bleeding. Some symptoms are itching, and/or a rash. The exact cause of eczema is unknown. The way to help is to not itch and lotion so the skin isn't dry.

Endocrine System

Function of the Endocrine System:

This system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, which are chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism and sexual development and function.

Role of homeostasis in the system:

This system provides an essential mechanism called homeostasis that integrates body activities and at the same time ensures that the composition of the body fluids bathing the constituent cells remains constant.

Negative feedback mechanism & role in body:

It is a reaction that causes a decrease in function. It occurs in response to some kind of stimulus. It is used for human body temperature, blood pressure, regulation of blood sugar, and production of red blood cells.


Type 1 Diabetes - This is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. You may experience bedwetting, excessive urination, sweating, nausea, excessive thirst, fatigue, hunger, sleepiness, headaches, blurred vision, vomiting, weight loss, or fast heart rate. To help this, you can take medications.

Type 2 Diabetes - This is a chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar. Some symptoms may include fatigue, excessive hunger, increased thirst, weight gain, blurred vision, poor wound healing, or frequent urination.

Skeletal System

Function of the Skeletal System:

This system provides vital functions - support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage, and endocrine regulation - that allow us to move through our daily lives.

Roles in human movements:

Bones - The roles are support, protection, movement, mineral storage, blood cell production, and energy storage.

Ligaments - They are there to connect two bones together. They define range of motion, protect joints and bones, and proprioception.

Muscles - They provide the force required for movement by moving one bone in relation to another.

Tendons - They connect muscles to bones.

Nerves - The motor neurons provides the stimulus for muscle movement and co-ordinates sets of antagonistic muscles.

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Two major disorders:

Autoimmune Arthritis - This is inflammation of more or more joints, causing pain and stiffness that can worsen with age. You may experience pain in your wrists, hands, fingers, ankles, heel, joints, muscles, back or neck. You can also feel tenderness, see swelling or stiffness in your joints. This can be treated by medications depending on what your trying to help. Between the inflammation, pain reliever, or steroids.

Clubfoot - This is usually presented at birth in which your baby's foot is twisted out of shape or position. This can be severe, some children have it in both feet which makes it harder for them to walk. Some symptoms include the top of the foot is usually twisted downward and inward, some feet may look upside down, calf muscles are normally underdeveloped, the affected foot may be 1/2 inch shorter than the other. The cause of this is unknown but can be treated in the early stages of birth by having surgery.

Muscular System

Function of the Muscular System:

This system is responsible for the movement of the human body. The muscles are attached to the bones of the skeletal system and have about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half a person's body weight
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Two major disorders:

Myopathy - This is a disease of muscle tissue. Some symptoms include weakness and atrophy of the muscles around the shoulders and hips, muscle stiffness, cramps, slowed reflexes, and in severe cases, muscle breakdown. The treatments of myopathy depends of the case.

Tendonitis - This is inflammation of the tendon. You may experience pain, tenderness, and mild swelling. This can be treated by medications such as pain relievers.

Nervous System

Function of the Nervous System:

This system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. All together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication within its parts.

Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System:

CNS - This system is the processing center for the nervous system. It receives and sends information to the peripheral nervous system. The two main functions of the CNS are the brain and spinal cord. The brain processes and interprets sensory information sent from the spinal cord.

PNS - There are two types of cells in this system. These cells carry information to and from the CNS. The cells are sensory and motor nervous cells. Cells of this system send information to the CNS from internal organs or from external stimuli.

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Reflex Arc:

This is a nerve pathway in the body of humans and some animals that connects certain muscle groups to others, without the involvement of the brain. These pathways control involuntary movements in response to some sort of stimulus.

Major Disorders:

Alzheimer's - This is a progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions. Many symptoms can occur but a few are loneliness, anger, apathy, mood swings, paranoia, hallucination, or depression. This can be treated by taking prescribed medications.

Epilepsy - This is a disorder in which nerve cell activity in the brain is disturbed, causing seizures. Some symptoms may be anxiety, depression, fear, muscle spasms/twitches, mental confusion, amnesia, fatigue, fainting, seizures and many more. This can be treated by taking medications given to you by your doctor.

Reproductive System

Function of this system:

This system is a collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing new life. The male reproductive system consists of two major parts, the testes (where the sperm is produced) and the penis. The major parts of the female reproductive system are the vagina and the uterus.


This is the process in which spermatozoa are produced from male primordial germ cells by way of mitosis or meiosis. The initial cells in this pathway are called spermatogonia, which yield primary spermatogonia by mitosis.


This is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). It is the female form of gametogenesis; the male equivalent is spermatogenesis. It involves the development of the various stages of the immature ovum. The reason this has unequal division of the cytoplasm is because implantation does not occur until 7-10 days after fertilization.

Major Disorders:

Endometriosis - This is a disorders in which tissue that normally line the uterus grows outside the uterus. You may experience pain in the abdomen, vagina, rectum, pelvis, or lower back. This can be treated by hormones, heating pads and/or surgery.

Prolapsed Uterus - This occurs when pelvic floor muscles and ligaments stretch and weaken, providing inadequate support for the uterus. You may feel sensation of heaviness/pulling in your pelvis, tissue protruding in your uterus, low back pain, urinary problems, sexual concerns, and/or bowel movement problems. This can be treated by surgery.