The Middle Ages
Feudalism was when the knight was payed with land. This land was called a manor which was ruled by a knight or noble. The people on the manor were called serfs and they had to work in the fields, take care of the farm, and never got to leave the manor.
Monarchs were the highest people in the manor other than the noble. They usually worked in the church. Monarchs as high up in power as the noble to a king.
The Catholic Church was essential during the Middle Ages. The head of the church was called a Pope. They were spiritual leaders which meant they got their power from God. They also a powerful political figure. This church was also the "Roman Catholic Church".
The Crusades were a many different wars that lasted about 100 years. These wars were also called the "Holy Wars". They were wars to get back the holy land of Jerusalem which was stolen by Turkish Muslims.
The Black Death
This was a disease that started in 1347-1351. It started as tingling sensation that could turn into vicious attacks on the body. This could feel like being hit with arrows. Some thought that God caused it and others thought it came from Earth. They looked for answers in the stars. Some died within hours to five days. It killed 1/3 of Europe's population and it grew in big cities. This disease came from fleas on rats on ships from Central Asia.
Growth of Cities
The Mdici Family was a cause of growth in cities. This was in Italy and was the first banking system. This was the rise of the Middle Class. This bank was in Florence Italy.
There were many advancements. There were cannons, English long bow, and many others. The English long bow was about 6 feet tall and could reload within seconds. This was much better than a crossbow because the crossbow was very had to reload fast enough to not get hit. Cannons were also useful because they could shoot out big round black cannon balls that did a lot of damage or killed.
Popes and Kings
Popes were the heat of the Roman Catholic Church. The were very powerful political leaders. Kings had less power than the pope. The king was less in power because the pope was the one who was the leader of the church. The pope was the one who told the knights to retrieve or get back the holy land also known as Jerusalem.