Mars 2030: Day and night
Day and night is caused by the rotation of a planet and how light hits one part of a planet and leaves the other part dark. Days and nights on Mars happen just like on Earth. There is a little bit of difference in the time, Mars' days are about 40 minutes longer. But days and nights are the same, it rotates getting sunlight and not getting sunlight causing day and night.
Years on Mars
A year for a planet is the amount of time it takes for the planet to rotate around its sun. A planet revolves around it's sun because of two things. The first thing is inertia, inertia keeps the planet moving as long as nothing can get in its way or stop it. The second thing that helps with revolution is the Suns gravity. The Suns gravity keeps it close while the inertia keeps it moving. Therefore, it will keep the same revolution for every year. Mars revolves around the sun every 687 earth days which is their full year.
Seasons on Mars
Seasons are the amount of light part of a planet receives. The amount of light effects it because if the light is more concentrated, the season will be warmer, if it is less concentrated light, the season will be colder. Seasons on Mars are caused by the axis. The axis stays the same throughout the whole revolution, but that means that during the orbit, one part of the planet is leaning towards the sun, and the other part is leaning away. On the opposite side of the sun in that revolution, the part that was leaning towards the sun is leaning away and the part that was leaning away is leaning towards the sun which will get more direct light. This is only for summer and winter solstices. For fall and spring equinoxes, it is different. With an equinox the planet is directly horizontal to the sun without a tilt, therefore all parts of the planet are getting the same amount of light, and the seasons are all the same in every part of the world. Mars will have seasons because it has a tilt, and will get different quantities of sunlight at every part of the revolution.
Phases of the Moons
Phases of moons are caused by the revolution of moons around a planet and how you see the moon. You can see the moon differently because of the way that the sun hits the moon. If the sun hits the moon while the moon is in between the planet and the sun, you probably won't see the moon or parts of the moon because the light is on the other side. If the moon is on the side of the planet, then you will only see part of the moon because the light is directed to angle you can see the moon. If the planet is in between the sun and moon you will see most of the moon or the whole because the light is hitting at a more direct angle to your view. There are phases of moons on mars because its moons rotate and the sun will hit the moon at direct angles so you see different angles of the moon.
Tides in Mars
There is not any tides on Mars because there isn't any water, only ice. If the was melted water, there would be tides because Phobos and Deimos would pull on the water and so would the sun.
Eclipses on Mars
An eclipse is when a planet or moon blocks one another's light from it's sun. A solar eclipse is when a moon blocks off light to a planet, and a lunar eclipse is when a planet blocks off light to the moon. Eclipses do occur on mars, both lunar and solar, because the moons revolution goes through the direct path of light to Mars. Since it block sun light, then Mars can also block the light from getting to the moon.
Earth vs. Mars
Earth and Mars are a bit alike, yet they have very big differences. Their rotation times are very alike, Earth's is 23 hours and 56 minutes, and Mars' is 24 hours and 39 minutes. Another obvious similarity is that they are both in the same solar system. Yet, there are much more differences. Earth's full orbit around the sun is 365.24 days and Mars' is 686.98 Earth days. Their axis' are also different. Mars' axis is 25.19 and Earth's axis is 23.5 degrees, which are actually very close. Another difference is Earth only has one moon, Mars has two, Phobos and Deimos. With these moons are a big difference in orbit around mars compared to our moon orbit around Earth. Phobos takes only seven hours and 39 minutes and Deimos only 30 hours. Our moon takes 29.5 days for a full revolution around Earth. Lastly about our moons is the angle they revolve at. Phobos angle is 1.075 degrees and Deimos' angle is 1.788 degrees, while our moons is 5 degrees. These are some important comparisons of Earth and Mars.