Roots of Change

Presentation by Matt McCullough

Part 1-Ancient Trade Rout/Current Trading Partner of the U.S.

Matt- Amber Road/ Asia

Seunghun- Incense Road/ Canada

Chris- Spice Road/ India

Jocelyn- Silk Road/ Europe

Part 2- Conflict


Matt- Holocaust

Seunghun- Bosnia

Chris- Cambodia

Jocelyn- Rwanda

Civil Wars:

Matt- Mexican Cession

Seunghun- Spanish American War

Chris- ???

Jocelyn- World War II

Conflicts Over Ideas:

Matt- Cold War

Seunghun- North and South Korea

Chris- ???

Jocelyn- French Revolution


Matt- 9/11 Twin Towers Attack

Seunghun- 1985 Pan Am Flight 103

Chris- 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing

Jocelyn- 1977 Moscow Bombings

Part 3- Technologies

Matt- Desalinization

Seunghun- Agriculture

Chris- ???

Jocelyn- Medicine




The Cambodian Genocide refers to the attempt of Khmer Rouge party

leader "Pol Pot" to nationalize and centralize the peasant farming

society of Cambodia virtually overnight, in accordance with the

Chinese Communist agricultural model. This resulted in the gradual

devastation of over 25% of the country's population in just three

short years.

Cambodia, a country in Southeast Asia, is less than half the size of

California, with its present day capital in Phnom Penh. In 1953

Cambodia gained its independence from France, after nearly 100 years

of colonialist rule. As the Vietnam War progressed, Cambodia's elected

Prime Minister Norodom Sihanouk adopted an official policy of

neutrality. Sihanouk was ousted in 1970 by a military coup led by his

own Cambodian General Lon Nol, a testament to the turbulent political

climate of Southeast Asia during this time. In the years preceding the

genocide, the population of Cambodia was just over 7 million, almost

all of whom were Buddhists. The country borders Thailand to its west

and northwest, Laos to its northeast, and Vietnam to its east and

southeast. The south and southwest borders of Cambodia are coastal

shorelines on the Gulf of Thailand.

The actions of the Khmer Rouge government which actually constitute

"genocide" began shortly after their seizure of power from the

government of Lon Nol in 1975, and lasted until the Khmer Rouge was

overthrown by the Vietnamese in 1978. The genocide itself emanated

from a harsh climate of political and social turmoil. This atmosphere

of communal unrest in Cambodia arose during the French decolonization

of Southeast Asia in the early 1950s, and continued to devastate the

region until the late 1980s.

Khmer Rouge Soldiers

The Khmer Rouge guerrilla movement, founded in 1960, was considerably

undermanned in its early days. The movement's leader, Pol Pot, was

educated in France and was an admirer of "Mao" (Chinese) communism -

Pol Pot envisioned the creation of a "new" Cambodia based on the

Maoist-Communist model. The aim of the Khmer Rouge was to deconstruct

Cambodia back a primitive "Year Zero," wherein all citizens would

participate in rural work projects, and any Western innovations would

be removed. Pol Pot brought in Chinese training tactics and Viet Cong

support for his troops, and was soon successful in producing a

formidable military force. In 1970, the Khmer Rouge went to civil war

with the U.S. backed "Khmer Republic," under lieutenant-general Lon

Nol. Lon Nol's government had assumed a pro-Western, anti-Communist

stance, and demanded the withdrawal of North Vietnamese and Viet Cong

forces from Cambodia. The Khmer Rouge guerillas were finally

successful in deposing Lon Nol's government in 1975. Under Pol Pot's

leadership, and within days of overthrowing the government, the Khmer

Rouge embarked on an organized mission: they ruthlessly imposed an

extremist program to reconstruct Cambodia on the communist model of

Mao's China. It was these extremist policies which led to the

Cambodian genocide.

Cambodian Victims

In order to achieve the "ideal" communist model, the Khmer Rouge

believed that all Cambodians must be made to work as laborer in one

huge federation of collective farms; anyone in opposition to this

system must be eliminated. This list of "potential opposition"

included, but was not limited to, intellectuals, educated people,

professionals, monks, religious enthusiasts, Buddhists, Muslims,

Christians, ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, and Cambodians with

Chinese, Vietnamese or Thai ancestry. The Khmer Rouge also vigorously

interrogated its own membership, and frequently executed members on

suspicions of treachery or sabotage. Survival in Khmer Rouge Cambodia

was determined by one's ability to work. Therefore, Cambodia's

elderly, handicapped, ill, and children suffered enormous casualties

for their inability to perform unceasing physical labor on a daily


At the onset of the Cambodian civil war in 1970, the neighboring

country of Vietnam was simultaneously engaged in a bitter civil war

between the communist North Vietnamese, and the U.S. backed South

Vietnamese. Under the Khmer Republic of Lon Nol, Cambodia became a

battlefield of the Vietnam War; it harbored U.S. troops, airbases,

barracks, and weapons caches. Prior to the Lon Nol government,

Cambodia had maintained neutrality in the Vietnamese civil war, and

had given equal support to both opposing sides. However, when the Lon

Nol government took control of Cambodia, U.S. troops felt free to move

into Cambodia to continue their struggle with the Viet Cong. As many

as 750,000 Cambodians died over the years 1970-1974, from American

B-52 bombers, using napalm and dart cluster-bombs to destroy suspected

Viet Cong targets in Cambodia. The heavy American bombardment, and Lon

Nol's collaboration with America, drove new recruits to Pol Pot's

Khmer Rouge guerilla movement. Many Cambodians had become disenchanted

with western democracy due to the huge loss of Cambodian lives,

resulting from the U.S.'s involving Cambodia in the war with Vietnam.

Pol Pot's communism brought with it images of new hope, promise, and

national tranquility for Cambodia. By 1975, Pol Pot's force had grown

to over 700,000 men. Within days of the Khmer Rouge takeover of

Cambodia in 1975, Pol Pot had put into motion his extremist policies

of collectivization (the government confiscation and control of all

properties) and communal labor.

Khmer Rouge Killing Fields

Under threat of death, Cambodians nationwide were forced from their

hometowns and villages. The ill, disabled, old and young who were

incapable of making the journey to the collectivized farms and labor

camps were killed on the spot. People who refused to leave were

killed, along with any who appeared to be in opposition to the new

regime. The people from entire cities were forcibly evacuated to the

countryside. All political and civil rights of the citizen were

abolished. Children were taken from their parents and placed in

separate forced labor camps. Factories, schools, universities,

hospitals, and all other private institutions were shut down; all

their former owners and employees were murdered, along with their

extended families. Religion was also banned: leading Buddhist monks

and Christian missionaries were killed, and temples and churches were

burned. While racist sentiments did exist within the Khmer Rouge, most

of the killing was inspired by the extremist propaganda of a militant

communist transformation. It was common for people to be shot for

speaking a foreign language, wearing glasses, smiling, or crying. One

Khmer slogan best illuminates Pol Pot's ideology:

"To spare you is no profit, to destroy you is no loss."

Cambodians who survived the purges and marches became unpaid laborers,

working on minimum rations for endless hours. They were forced to live

in public communes, similar to military barracks, with constant food

shortages and diseases running rampant. Due to conditions of virtual

slave labor, starvation, physical injury, and illness, many Cambodians

became incapable of performing physical work and were killed off by

the Khmer Rouge as expenses to the system. These conditions of

genocide continued for three years until Vietnam invaded Cambodia in

1978 and ousted the Khmer Rouge government. To this point, civilian

deaths totaled well over 2 million.

Cambodia lay in ruins under the newly-established Vietnamese regime.

The economy failed under Pol Pot, and all professionals, engineers,

technicians and planners who could potentially reorganize Cambodia had

been killed in the genocide. Since Cambodia had now fallen under

Vietnamese (Communist) control, foreign relief aid from any western,

democratic state was unlikely. Throughout the 1980s, the U.S. and U.K.

instead offered financial and military support to the Khmer Rouge

forces in exile, who had now sworn opposition to Vietnam and

communism. The Vietnamese occupation and the continual threat of Khmer

Rouge guerilla forces preserved Cambodia in underdeveloped and

prehistoric conditions- until Vietnam's eventual withdrawal in 1989.

In the following military conflicts of 1978-1989, an additional 14,000

Cambodian civilians perished. In 1991, a peace agreement was finally

reached, and Buddhism was reinstated as the official state religion.

The nation's first true democratic elections were held in 1993.

Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC)

On July 25, 1983, the "Research Committee on Pol Pot's Genocidal

Regime" issued its final report, including detailed

province-by-province data. Among other things, their data showed that

3,314,768 people lost their lives in the "Pol Pot time." Beginning in

1995, mass graves were uncovered throughout Cambodia. Bringing the

perpetrators to justice, however, has proved to be a difficult task.

The UN called for a Khmer Rouge Tribunal in 1994; the trials finally

began in November of 2007, and are expected to continue through 2010.

Many suspected perpetrators were killed in the military struggle with

Vietnam or eliminated as internal threats to the Khmer Rouge itself.

In 1997, Pol Pot himself was arrested by Khmer Rouge members; a "mock"

trial was staged and Pol Pot was found guilty. He died of natural

causes in 1998. The last members of the Khmer Rouge were officially

disbanded in 1999. Currently, the state of affairs in Cambodia is

relatively tranquil. Today, Cambodia's main industries are fabrics and

tourism; foreign visitors to Cambodia surpassed 1.7 million in 2006.

However, the BBC reports that corruption remains a serious issue in

Cambodian politics. International aid from the U.S. and other

countries is often embezzled by bureaucrats into their private

accounts. This illegal seizure of foreign aid has greatly added to the

widespread income disparity which affects most Cambodian citizens


The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and

the Zulu Kingdom. Following a campaign by which Lord Carnarvon had

successfully brought about federation in Canada, it was thought that

similar combined military and political campaigns might succeed with

the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa.

In 1874, Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa as High

Commissioner for the British Empire to bring such plans into being.

Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the

South African Republic and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army.[6]

Frere, on his own initiative, without the approval of the British

government[7][8] and with the intent of instigating a war with the

Zulu, had presented an ultimatum on 11 December 1878, to the Zulu king

Cetshwayo with which the Zulu king could not comply.[9] Cetshwayo did

not comply and Bartle Frere sent Lord Chelmsford to invade

Zululand.[10] The war is notable for several particularly bloody

battles, including a stunning opening victory by the Zulu at

Isandlwana, as well as for being a landmark in the timeline of

imperialism in the region. The war eventually resulted in a British

victory and the end of the Zulu nation's independence

When in the late 1520s the Catholic authorities of England tried to

buy up and burn all copies of William Tyndale's English translation of

the Bible, they were attempting to stop the spread of what they viewed

as a dangerous plague of heresies spreading out from Luther's Germany.

The plague was the Protestant Reformation, a movement opposed to

crucial aspects of both the belief system and the institutional

structure of Roman Catholicism.

Many of the key tenets of the Reformation were not new: they had been

anticipated in England by the teachings of the theologian and reformer

John Wycliffe in the fourteenth century. But Wycliffe and his

followers, known as Lollards, had been suppressed, and, officially at

least, England in the early sixteenth century had a single religion,

Catholicism, whose acknowledged head was the Pope in Rome. In 1517,

drawing upon long-standing currents of dissent, Martin Luther, an

Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of

Wittenberg in Germany, challenged the authority of the Pope and

attacked several key doctrines of the Catholic Church. According to

Luther, the Church, with its elaborate hierarchical structure centered

in Rome, its rich monasteries and convents, and its enormous political

influence, had become hopelessly corrupt, a conspiracy of venal

priests who manipulated popular superstitions to enrich themselves and

amass worldly power. Luther began by vehemently attacking the sale of

indulgences -- certificates promising the remission of punishments to

be suffered in the afterlife by souls sent to Purgatory to expiate

their sins. These indulgences, along with other spiritual and temporal

powers claimed by the Pope, had no foundation in the Bible, which in

Luther's view was the only legitimate source of religious truth.

Christians would be saved not by scrupulously following the ritual

practices fostered by the Catholic Church -- observing fast days,

reciting the ancient Latin prayers, endowing chantries to say prayers

for the dead, and so on -- but by faith and faith alone.

Oklahoma City bombing

The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist bomb attack on the

Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April

19, 1995. It would remain the most destructive act of terrorism

committed in the United States until the September 11 attacks of 2001,

six years later. The bombing claimed 168 lives[1] and injured more

than 680 people.[2] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings

within a 16-block radius, destroyed or burned 86 cars, and shattered

glass in 258 nearby buildings,[3][4] causing at least an estimated

$652 million worth of damage.[5] Extensive rescue efforts were

undertaken by local, state, federal, and worldwide agencies in the

wake of the bombing, and substantial donations were received from

across the country. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

activated eleven of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces,

consisting of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery


Within 90 minutes of the explosion, Timothy McVeigh was stopped by

Oklahoma State Trooper Charlie Hanger for driving without a license

plate and arrested for unlawfully carrying a weapon.[8][9] Forensic

evidence quickly linked McVeigh and Terry Nichols to the attack;

Nichols was arrested,[10] and within days both were charged. Michael

and Lori Fortier were later identified as accomplices. McVeigh, an

American militia movement sympathizer who was a Gulf War veteran, had

detonated an explosive-filled Ryder rental truck parked in front of

the building. McVeigh's co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, had assisted in

the bomb preparation. Motivated by his hatred of the federal

government and angered by what he perceived as its mishandling of the

1993 Waco siege and the Ruby Ridge incident in 1992, McVeigh timed his

attack to coincide with the second anniversary of the deadly fire that

ended the siege at Waco.[11][12]

Air conditioning

The basic concept behind air conditioning is said to have been applied

in ancient Egypt, where reeds were hung in windows and were moistened

with trickling water. The evaporation of water cooled the air blowing

through the window, though this process also made the air more humid

(also beneficial in a dry desert climate). In Ancient Rome, water from

aqueducts was circulated through the walls of certain houses to cool

them. Other techniques in medieval Persia involved the use of cisterns

and wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season. Modern air

conditioning emerged from advances in chemistry during the 19th

century, and the first large-scale electrical air conditioning was

invented and used in 1902 by Willis Carrier. The introduction of

residential air conditioning in the 1920s helped enable the great

migration to the Sun Belt in the US.

It allowed more people to live in the southern US, in Europe and the

Middle East it helped cool down buildings after the summer in Asia it

was used cool things