# Ancient Rome

## The Numerals

Have you ever wondered how numbers looked like in the "olden days"? Well, after reading this, you will understand numbers better. I means one. II means two and so one until you get to four. V means five. So putting I before V makes it four because you subtract one from five. So far you know I, II, III, IV, and V. Now you can put I after V to make it six, and II to make it seven and same with eight. Now for nine, it's the same as four. X is ten. So putting I before X makes it nine. Continue with the teens by adding I after the X. Now on to the tens. We already now X equals ten, so XX is ten plus ten which is twenty. XXX is thirty and so on. Keep in mind, adding I makes the number greater by one. So far we know I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII and so on. We also know IX, X, XX, XXX and so on. So once you get to 50 the Roman Numeral would be L. To get to sixty or seventy you add a X after the L. So for example LX is sixty, LXX is seventy and LXXX is eighty. Now we are at one hundred. We use the numeral C because cent means 100. Like century means 100 years. Adding I makes the number greater by one, adding X makes the number greater by ten and adding L to another makes the number greater by fifty. Now five hundred is D. Today, we do not use letters for numbers. We make the numbers shorter by doing this. 1, 2, 3, 4 instead of I, II, III, IV.

## How to use the Numerals

There are 4 basic rules for reading and writing Roman Numerals.

1. A Roman Numeral can only be repeated 3 times in a number.

For example: XXX = 30 or CC = 200

2. If one or more letters are placed after another letter of greater value then you add that amount.

For example: VI = 6 (5+1=6)

3. If one letter is placed before a letter with greater value, subtract that amount.

For example: IV = 4 (5-1=4)

4. If there is a line above a letter it increases the number by 1,000

For example: XV = 15

## How the Roman Numerals were invented

Roman Numerals were invented because the Romans needed a way to easily put a price on different goods and services. Roman numerals were commonly used throughout the Roman Empire in their daily lives. After the Roman Empire, the numerals continued to be used all through Europe until the 1600's. The Romans adopted the numeral system from their ancestors in central Italy, the Etruscans easily adapted and improved the system.

## How we use Roman Numerals today

Today we use digits instead of letters for our numeral system. Yet, we still use numerals. We use numerals on clocks sometimes. At the Superbowl we use Numerals instead if writing the digits. Same with the Olympics, they use Roman Numerals for the championship as well. Sometimes in chapter books the chapter number will be in numerals and so will the page number. So even though we used the Roman's numeral system and improved, we still can give them credit for their work.

## The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire started at 27 BC. The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization with the typical harsh form of government. The earlier Roman Republic had been weakened and destroy by the argument between Sulla and Gaius Marius, which was followed by the civil war against Pompey lead by Gaius Julius Caesar. During all these fights hundreds of senators had fallen in battle, later been executed, murdered, or had committed a suicide. The Roman Senate had been fulfilled by devoted friends of the First Triumvirate, and later on, by followers of the Second Triumvirate. Finally, Octavian (later renamed as Augustus) defeated his enemy Mark Antony and completed his last destruction by completely reorganizing the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

## Colosseum

One of the Roman Empire Buildings was the Colosseum. It was located in the center of Rome, Italy. The construction started 70 AD and took ten years to complete. It was the largest amphitheater built in Rome. There was four main floors in the Colosseum. The Colosseum would get about 3.9 visitors every year. It held 50,000 people and had numerous tunnels and rooms inside. The Colosseum was used for extreme, dramatic sporting events. One million animals died in the Colosseum during the sporting events. Severals earth quakers caused the Colosseum to fall apart.

## Roman Baths

In Rome, houses had water suppled with lead pipes. The pipes were taxed depending on size so people could not take baths in their homes. People went to local baths and they were very useful. People could relax there and be clean. They also socialized to keep up with the recent news. Taking a bath was not a simple chore. They had to take a cold, warm, and hot bath. They was also an exercise area which included a swimming pool and gym. Building a bath required engineering skills as in heating up the water. The engineers used a furnace and the hypocaust system carried the heat. The water was constantly supplied. 640 kilometers of aqueducts were used. The complex bath was built by the emperor Diocletian. The baths sometimes contained mosaics and massive marble columns to have a purpose. The larger baths contained statues of gods and professionals. The staff massaged visitors and rubbed scented olive oil into their skin. The Roman baths were cheap. The saunas used to get rid of dirt. Some people enjoyed others were annoyed because of the noise. Today we have clean hot and cold running water to drink, brush teeth, wash hands and to bathe in.