Decolonization

Hayden Hartz, Alejandro Nava, Daniel Pifer, Asher GeorgesP.1

Oil The Black Gold of the Middle East

After the Industrial Revolution the Middle East realized the global power they held in the oil market. Controlling two thirds of the worlds oil the Middle East and other oil exporting countries formed OPEC. By cutting the amount of oil in circulation, OPEC drove the price of oil through the roof. This gained the countries involved billions in revenue, which many used to modernize their political structures.

Iranian Revolution: Shah Gets Shanked With No Redemption

India

India was becoming less and less independent, even against the will of its British colonial rulers. During the 1920s, the Indian National Congress (INC), led by Mohandas Gandhi, was gaining support from followers, especially after killing like the Amritsar massacre, where 319 Indians were brutally slaughtered. Britian finally granted independence to the Indians after WWII after Gandhi had led a peaceful movement using "civil disobedience". Unfortunately though, the Muslim-Indian conflicts segregated the country and soon, the country was split in three: Hindus in India,and Muslims in Pakistan and Bangladesh. There is still conflict between these country today.

Rwanda's bloods and crips

Before Belgian rule, there were 2 main groups of Rwandas population; the Tutsi (made up 15% of the population) and the Hutu (made up the other 85%). After the colony gained its freedom form Belgium, these 2 groups further developed a previously developed intense hatred for each other and fought over control of the other leading to massacres and genocide of both ethnic groups. This is one of the many newly free nations to face this ethnic conflict in Africa after decolonization.

S.S. Africa (Segregated South Africa)

In some colonies of Africa, like South Africa, the ruling country had established populations of their ethnicity that called that colony home. This did not mean that they blended into the native population being colonized, in fact, South African natives witnessed highly unfair treatment by both the colonial rulers and the white colonists. After achieving independence from Britain, however, segregation of races only grew into apartheid, which was integrated by white minority population that had come into power after exercising some power before full independence. In response to the complete separation laws, which pushed blacks to slums and badlands, the ANC (African National Congress) was formed and appointed Nelson Mandela as leader. The ANC started with Gandhi style peaceful protest, mostly ineffective, until a massacre of protesters occurred and the ANC encouraged action. This is when the congress was outlawed and its leader imprisoned until later when both black majority and international pressure forced Mandela to be freed in 1990 and later apartheid's end in 1994. Happy ending went on to take Mandela as the nation's first black president in a free election.