MicroOrganisms / Infecious diseases

by: Juanita Ledwell

MicroOrganisms

A microscopic organism are usually a virus, bacteria, fungi, or parasites.

different types:


  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Protozoa
  • Fungi
  • Algae


Many Micro Organisms cause Disease.

The basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease/ Important information that has been discussed in class:

Viruses

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  • Non living
  • Affect living
  • Need a host cell to attack/ reproduce
  • Invade healthy cells and kill
  • Vaccines control and prevent (DO NOT TREAT)


Bacteria

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  • Are prokaryotic, single celled organisms.
  • Live in a variety of places
  • With or without Oxygen ( hot/cold oxygen) and in extreme conditions
  • Reproduce through binary fission



Fungi

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  • Are eukaryotic, multi-cellular heterotrophs
  • Reproduce by producing spores
  • Attack the tissue of living plant/ animal to cause disease
  • Attack humans and also food sources



Parasites

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  • Organisms that feed on another individual, known as a host.
  • Can live on/ inside a host's body
  • Typically found in the intestines, blood, or tissue of living things Ex: Tapeworm

The difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease:

Epidemic -

An outbreak of a disease that affects many people in an area of a specific country or region. Ex: SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) (2003)


Pandemic -

An endemic that spreads over a very large area or through out the entire world

Ex: Black Plague (1346 - 53), Spanish Flu (1918), Asian Flu (1957), Swine Flu (2009 - Present)

Microbiology is:

The study of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi and protozoa. This discipline includes fundamental research on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of microorganisms, including the host response to these agents.

Outbreak, Epidemic, Pandemic

Outbreak - Occurrence of a disease greater than would otherwise be expected at a particular time and place,


the epidemics is more severe then the outbreak but less severe than the pandemic which is world-wide.

Vocabulary

  • Outbreak- Occurrence of a disease greater than would otherwise be expected at a particular time and place.


  • Epidemic- An outbreak of a disease that effects many people in an area of a specific country or region.


  • Pandemic- An epidemic that spreads over a very large area or through out the world.


  • Vector- An organism typically an insect that transmits disease.


  • Pathogen- A virus, Bacteria, Fungi, Parasite, or protozoa that can cause illness and infection.


  • Protozoa- Diverse organisms that cannot be classified as animals, plants, or fungi, Ex: amoebas and algae


  • Viruses- A nonliving pathogen that can change mutate. it infects a host cell and replicates to cause illness and disease.


  • Bacteria- Single-celled prokaryotes that can cause disease. Multiply rapidly and can form colonies.


  • Parasite- An organism that lives in or on another organism called a host, taking nutrients, and often harming it in the process.


  • Fungi- A single celled or multi cellular organism that can decompose or absorb organic matter. Ex: mushroom, yeast, or mold.


  • Host cell- A call that a virus invades, takes over, and makes copies of itself.


  • Quarantine- A time or place of isolation in which people or animals that have been exposed to infectious or contagious diseases are placed.

The End