By: Jason Kim
ATP ProductionCellular Respiration produces ATP- Just like photosynthesis. The theoretical outcome of the production of ATP is 38 per glucose molecule but most of the time it is about 30-32.
Reactants for Cellular Respiration- C6H12O6+6O2
Reactants for Photosynthesis- 6CO2+12H2O+Energy
Cellular Respiration does not require sunlight to carry out it's process; Cellular Respiration can occur at anytime, anywhere. However, Photosynthesis constantly is in need of sunlight because without it, it cannot carry out it's process.
Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae (Kingdom Protista). Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis.
Leaf Cross-SectionPhotosynthesis takes place primarily in plant leaves, and little to none occurs in stems, etc. The parts of a typical leaf include the upper and lower epidermis, the mesophyll, the vascular bundle(s) (veins), and thestomates. The upper and lower epidermal cells do not have chloroplasts, thus photosynthesis does not occur there. They serve primarily as protection for the rest of the leaf. The stomates are holes which occur primarily in the lower epidermis and are for air exchange: they let CO2 in and O2 out. The vascular bundles or veins in a leaf are part of the plant’s transportation system, moving water and nutrients around the plant as needed. The mesophyll cells have chloroplasts and this is where photosynthesis occurs.
Chlorplast, as you hopefully recall, the parts of a chloroplast include the outer and inner membranes, intermembrane space, stroma, and thylakoids stacked in grana. The chlorophyll is built into the membranes of the thylakoids.
Chlorophyll looks green because it absorbs red and blue light, making these colors unavailable to be seen by our eyes. It is the green light which is NOT absorbed that finally reaches our eyes, making chlorophyll appear green. However, it is the energy from the absorbed red and blue light that is, thereby, able to be used to do photosynthesis. The green light we can see is not/cannot be absorbed by the plant, and thus cannot be used to do photosynthesis.
Essentially, sugar (C6H12O6) is burned, or oxidized, down to CO2 and H2O, releasing energy (ATP) in the process. Why do cells need ATP? All cellular work -all the activities of life - requires energy, either from ATP or from related molecules. A lot of oxygen is required for this process! The sugar AND the oxygen are delivered to your cells via your bloodstream.
This process occurs partially in the cytoplasm, and partially in the mitochondria. The mitochondria is another organelle in eukaryotic cells. like the chloroplast, the mitochondria has two lipid bilayers around it, and its own genome. In some ways similar to the chloroplast, the mitochondria also has two main sites for the reactions: The matrix, a liquidy part of the mitochondrion, and the christae, the folded membranes in the mitochondrion.
1: Glycolysis ("splitting of sugar"): This step happens in the cytoplasm.
One Glucose (C6H12O6) is broken down to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid. Results in the production of 2 ATPs for every glucose.
2: Transition Reaction: Pyruvic Acid is shuttled into the mitochondria, where it is converyed to a molecule called Acetyl CoA for further breakdown.
3: The Krebs Cycle, or Citric Acid Cycle: Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, the liquid-y part of the mitochondria.
In the presence of Oxygen gas (O2), all the hydrogens (H2) are stripped off the Acetyl CoA, two by two, to extract the electrons for making ATP, until there are no hydrogens left - and all that is left of the sugar is CO2 - a waste product - and H2O (exhale). The Krebs cycle results in the production of only ~4 ATPs, but produces a lot of NADH, which will go on to the next step.
4: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis. Occurs in the christae of the mirochondria, the folded membranes inside the chloroplast.
Sources: I LOVE RESEARCH!!
- "Cellular Respiration:." Cellular Respiration:. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2015.
- "Photosynthesis." Photosynthesis. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2015.