The Mongol Empire

Some Facts

Genghis Khan

The founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.

Achievements:

  • took over large parts of China
  • united all the Mongols

Sons

  • Ogedei- third son, expanded Empire to farthest Western and Southern points
  • Jochi-first son, known for his great military accomplishments
  • Tolui-fourth son, known for participating in conquests and as the civil administrator
  • Chagatai-second son, got rid of the Yassa and was a fair and just ruler
  • Gelejian- There is no known information of this son, he died in 1235

Decline

The Mongol dynasty declined due to overspending in conquests, corruption, and internally instability. Zhu Yuanzhang put together and army and defeated the Mongols to create the Ming dynasty.

Buddhism & Daoism

  • Brought to China by merchants and missionaries from India
  • Was eventually chosen by the emperor to be the imperial court advisors

Neo-Confucianism

  • A response to Daoism and Buddhism, taught that this world is real not an illusion
  • officially supported after the Song Dynasty to the end of dynasties

Golden Age

Poetry

Famous Poets:


  • Li Bo- "Quiet Night Thoughts"
  • Du Fu- "Spring Prospect"

Paintings and Ceramics

Artists tried to reveal the hidden forms of landscape. Used Daoist vision, one cannot know the whole truth, and left holes in paintings. Tang artists perfected porcelain.

A Day In The Army

  • Moved five miles a day
  • Cavalry had two-four horses so they always had a fresh one
  • 75,000 oxen carried supplies
  • Men had to be expert horsemen, archers, and fighters
  • Women had to tend to animals and domestic duties, also collected arrows and killed wounded enemies
  • 100,000 sheep and 10,000 goats for food, milk, and wool
  • Children cooked or fought, and collected animal dung for fuel