Parenting Handbook

Chelsea Ferrie

Young Psychology Crises- Trust Vs. Mistrust

Trust vs. Mistrust is the first stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage happens before the child turns 18 months. The child will learn either to trust those around them or learn to mistrust others. Developing trust can lead to feelings of safety and security while failure to develop this trust can lead to fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.

Ways to develop this trust is to fulfill the child's needs. When the child cries, do you care for his/her needs? When the child is frightened, do you calm he/she down? Constantly meeting the child's need will help the child to develop a trust for those around him/her.

Parenting Styles


Authoritarian parents expect compliance. They do not negotiate with their children nor do they give reasons for their commands. The parents who use this style expect their kids to act maturely at a young age. Children of these parents are typically withdrawn mistrusting, unhappy, and have poor social skills.


Authoritative parents seek mature behavior from their kids; however, they do this in a manner that uses give-and-take. They give explanations for their requests and rules, but they also respect their child's views and opinions. This parenting style results in children that are generally confident, energetic, mature, friendly, self-reliant, well-behaved, and adjust well to traumatic events.


Permissive parents use little control over their child's behaviors. These parents let the children make all of the decisions like when to go to bed or curfews. Children of these parents are usually immature, demanding, impulsive, disobedient, delinquent, aggressive and have difficulty in school.


Uninvolved parents are not only permissive but they are indifferent to their kids. These parents make few requests of their children and respond uncaring and rejecting to their kids. Children raised this way frequently exhibit problems in academics, emotional control, tolerance for frustration, and are delinquent.

Temper Tantrums & Potty Training

Temper Tantrums

Temper Tantrums are common in toddlers and are usually caused by the fact the child is tired, hungry, uncomfortable, or that the child can't get an object to do what he/she wants. Ways to avoid temper tantrums are to make sure your child is getting enough attention, give your child some control over little things, have off-limits objects out of sight, distract your child, and finally, know your child's limits.

With handling temper tantrums, don't use physical tactics like spanking or hitting. This enforces that using force is okay and can increase negative behaviors in the long run. Ignoring the outburst is one way of handling it; however, don't leave little children by themselves and stay in eyesight as you continue with your activities. Once your child starts school, he/she is old enough to be sent to his/her room until they can calm down. Do NOT give in to the child's temper tantrum. This only leads to the child learning that temper tantrums are effective. A doctor should be called if your child frequently hurts himself or herself, others, or is destructive. A doctor can check if the tantrum is caused by any physical problems, such as language delays, hearing, or vision problems.

Potty Training

Most children are ready for potty training between 18 months and 24 months of age. Some children might not be ready until they reach 2 and a half years. Some other indicators that your child is ready for potty training: they have the ability to help dress and undress himself/herself and has the ability to follow simple instructions First, you should pick what words you would like your child to use when potty training. Next, you need to pick a potty chair that is idealistic for your child to use. Then, you should help your child recognize the signs of needing to go to the bathroom. Next, you should make a routine of going to the bathroom with your child. Finally, you should encourage the use of training pants to help your child feel proud.


Punishment is used to decrease a undesirable behavior.However, solely relying on punishment can lead to the child showing rage, aggression, and fear. Without positive coaching and modeling, the child being punished will learn what is the acceptable behavior.


Moral Development

According to psychologist, Lawrence Kohlberg, there are six stages of moral development, obedience and punishment, instrumental relativist, good kid, law and order, social contract, and universal ethics principle. For a child to reach the higher levels of moral development, he/she must first be able see from others' points of view and be able to respect the rights of others. Also, the development of cognitive abilities influences moral development.

Cognitive Development

John Piaget described cognitive development in 4 stages, the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operations stare, and formal operations stage. During the sensorimotor stage, the child's behavior consist of simple motor responses and lacks object permanence. At the preoperational stage, the child exhibits egocentric thinking but lacks concept of conservation. At the concrete operations stage, the child understands the concept of conservation. At the formal operations stage, the child understands abstract ideas and is capable of logical and deductive reasoning.

According to Piaget, a child's development through these four stages depend on the maturation of his/her nervous system and the experiences the child has.

Identity Development

According to psychologist, Erik Erikson, for adolescents to have a sense of identity, they have to go to an identity crisis, a period of conflict during which adolescents worry about who they are. The big adolescent question is, "Who am I?" Adolescents need to organize their needs, abilities, interests, culture, peer demands, and find a way to express themselves in a socially acceptable way. Identity forms when the adolescent can resolve issues like a choice of occupation and a set of values to live by.


Trust vs. Mistrust-

Parenting Styles-

Temper tantrum-

Potty Training-

Identity development- Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill

Moral development-Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill

Cognitive development-Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill

Punishment-Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill