Young Psychology Crises- Trust Vs. Mistrust
Trust vs. Mistrust is the first stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. This stage happens before the child turns 18 months. The child will learn either to trust those around them or learn to mistrust others. Developing trust can lead to feelings of safety and security while failure to develop this trust can lead to fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
Ways to develop this trust is to fulfill the child's needs. When the child cries, do you care for his/her needs? When the child is frightened, do you calm he/she down? Constantly meeting the child's need will help the child to develop a trust for those around him/her.
Temper Tantrums & Potty Training
With handling temper tantrums, don't use physical tactics like spanking or hitting. This enforces that using force is okay and can increase negative behaviors in the long run. Ignoring the outburst is one way of handling it; however, don't leave little children by themselves and stay in eyesight as you continue with your activities. Once your child starts school, he/she is old enough to be sent to his/her room until they can calm down. Do NOT give in to the child's temper tantrum. This only leads to the child learning that temper tantrums are effective. A doctor should be called if your child frequently hurts himself or herself, others, or is destructive. A doctor can check if the tantrum is caused by any physical problems, such as language delays, hearing, or vision problems.
According to Piaget, a child's development through these four stages depend on the maturation of his/her nervous system and the experiences the child has.
Parenting Styles- http://www.education.com/reference/article/parenting-styles-2/
Identity development- Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill
Moral development-Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill
Cognitive development-Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill
Punishment-Understanding Psychology-Glencoe and McGraw-Hill