Human papillomavirus infection

By: Alfredo Antonetti, Group 2

Symptoms and Causes

Many people with HPV don't develop any symptoms of the virus but they can still affect others through sexual contact. Symptoms may include warts on the genitals or surrounding skin. Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced, very serious and hard to treat. The virus is caused when the virus enters your body through a cut, abrasion, or small tear in your skin. It is primarily transferred by skin-to-skin contact. Most of the time, HPV is spread through sexual activity and genital contact.

Immune Cells Involved in Immune Response

The interferon response for HPV infection, a key antiviral defence mechanism , is actively suppressed with the E6 and E7 proteins of the high risk HPVs inhibiting the interferon receptor signalling pathways and the activation of the interferon response genes. The E7 proteins down regulate TLR9 and overall HPV effectively evades the innate immune response delaying the activation of adaptive immunity.

Treatment

  • Can’t be cured, but can be treated

  • Warts may go away on their own

  • Treatment focuses on removing the warts.

  • A vaccine that prevents the HPV strains most likely to cause genital warts and cervical cancer is recommended for boys and girls.
  • Bivalent vaccine (Cervarix) which helps prevent warts and with some of the cancer

Prevention

You can prevent being affected by the virus by 1 not have sex and being abstinent or having safe sex. You could get the HPV vaccine (before becoming sexually active). Also Limit your number of sexual partners, and adopt a healthy diet to boost your immune system for fighting off the infection.

How HPV Replicates

The lysogentic cycle is where , the virus mix their genetic instructions into the host cell's genetic instructions. When the host cell reproduces, the viral genetic instructions get copied into the host cell's offspring. The host cells may undergo many rounds of reproduction, and then some environmental or predetermined genetic signal will stir the "sleeping" viral instructions. The viral genetic instructions will then take over the host's machinery and make new viruses as described above.