Taurin Batts & Michael Dansky

Surface Mining

-used when ore material is extracted fairly close to the surface.

-safer and easier than subsurface mining.

-does more damage to the surface ecosystems.

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Subsurface Mining

-when the material is deep beneath the surface.

-not as much damage to the ecosystems.

-difficult and expensive to do.

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3 types of Surface MIning

-strip mining

-open pit

-mountain top removal

Strip Mining

a type of surface mining that involves excavating earth, rock, and other material to uncover a tabular, lens-shaped, or layered mineral reserve.
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Open Pit Mining

a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
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Mountain Top Removal Mining

a form of surface mining that involves the mining of the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
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3 types of Subsurface Mining




Slope Mining

a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore.
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Drift MIning

a more general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed (of coal, for instance) or vein of ore.
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Shaft Mining

method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.
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the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside.

Effects fracking has on the environment

-It takes 1-8 million gallons of water to complete each fracturing job.

-The water brought in is mixed with sand and chemicals to create fracking fluid. Approximately 40,000 gallons of chemicals are used per fracturing.

-Up to 600 chemicals are used in fracking fluid, including known carcinogens and toxins such as.

-The fracking fluid is then pressure injected into the ground through a drilled pipeline.

-Contaminated well water is used for drinking water for nearby cities and towns.