Twice Exceptional Students

Giftedness With A Learning Disability

Dispelling A Myth

Stereotype: Gifted students do not have learning disabilities.


Fact: Some gifted students do have learning disabilities, yet are extremely capable in other areas.


Colangelo, Nicholas. 36 Myths and Stereotypes of Gifted Students: Awareness for the Classroom Teacher. ( )

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“If we allow ourselves to challenge, question, and probe some of gifted education’s myths, we can develop new models and approaches that will be practical, cost-efficient, and readily implemented in the schools” (Treffinger, 2009).
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In Ontario, and elsewhere, students who are identified as Exceptional Intellectual – Gifted and Exceptional Communication – Learning Disability, may sometimes be referred to as “twice exceptional”. The Ministry of Education (2001) defines giftedness as “An unusually advanced degree of general intellectual ability that requires differentiated learning experiences of a depth and breadth beyond those normally provided in the regular school program to satisfy the level of educational potential indicated”.


Through Policy/Program Memorandum No. 8 (PPM 8), issued August, 2014, the Ministry of Education defines learning disability as one of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders that persistently and significantly has an impact on the ability to learn and use academic and other skills (Click here to access the full PPM 8 definition). The definition states that a student’s intellectual abilities must be at least in the average range to be identified under Learning Disability, and that a student must show academic underachievement inconsistent with their intellectual abilities, or academic achievement that can be maintained by the student only with extremely high levels of effort and/or with additional support. This definition leaves room for identification under Gifted and under Learning Disability, but the Ministry of Education does not provide a definition of Gifted/LD. However, a student may be identified with more than one exceptionality.


ONLINE RESOURCE:

http://ldatschool.ca/assessment/gifted-students-with-lds-what-teachers-need-to-know/

INFORMATION & STRATEGIES TO SUPPORT STUDENT LEARNING

Intellectual Ability - Challenge

  • Use active inquiry involving discussion and experimentation
  • Provide open-ended challenges requiring divergent thinking, especially in small-group settings
  • Consider students’ preferred learning styles, interest, and strengths
  • Based on student interests, incorporate opportunities for students to investigate real-world problems for real audiences
  • Provide sufficient time for students to work without interruption
  • Use POW or a similar strategy for writing -- students Pick their own ideas, Organize their notes, and Write and then say more by writing again (Margolis & McCabe, 2006)
  • Use acceleration and curriculum compacting in strength areas<
  • Teach whole concepts and then parts rather than part-to-whole
  • Teach creative thinking and dramatics (Starko, 2004)
  • Provide students with the rationale for tasks and lessons
  • Provide students with detailed rubrics, checklists, or performance lists to reduce frustration
http://ldatschool.ca/assessment/gifted-students-with-lds-what-teachers-need-to-know/



Organizational Skills

  • Use active inquiry involving discussion and experimentation
  • Provide open-ended challenges requiring divergent thinking, especially in small-group settings
  • Consider students’ preferred learning styles, interest, and strengths
  • Based on student interests, incorporate opportunities for students to investigate real-world problems for real audiences
  • Provide sufficient time for students to work without interruption
  • Use POW or a similar strategy for writing -- students Pick their own ideas, Organize their notes, and Write and then say more by writing again (Margolis & McCabe, 2006)
  • Use acceleration and curriculum compacting in strength areas<
  • Teach whole concepts and then parts rather than part-to-whole
  • Teach creative thinking and dramatics (Starko, 2004)
  • Provide students with the rationale for tasks and lessons
  • Provide students with detailed rubrics, checklists, or performance lists to reduce frustration
http://ldatschool.ca/assessment/gifted-students-with-lds-what-teachers-need-to-know/


Social Skills / Anxiety

  • Tap into students’ strengths by using bibliotherapy (the use of books to change behaviour and/or reduce stress), cinematherapy (a form of therapy or self-help that uses movies, particularly videos, as therapeutic tools), biographies and autobiographies, inspirational quotes, and self-help and how-to books (Halsted, 2002)
  • Offer peer or group counseling sessions to address issues of self-concept, self-esteem, fear of failure, negative interactions with teachers, and poor peer relations
  • Encourage individual counseling to address chronic behavioral or familial difficulties
  • Encourage the use of reflective journals employing various modalities to address issues of self-esteem or self-efficacy
    Conduct short- and long-term goal setting sessions
http://ldatschool.ca/assessment/gifted-students-with-lds-what-teachers-need-to-know/

Time Management Skills

  • Provide shortened class assignments to support short-term goal-setting strategies
  • Teach learning strategies that provide students with a logical sequence of steps that make attacking difficult tasks more manageable (Margolis & McCabe, 2006) (e.g., the Strategic Instruction Model, University of Kansas, Center for Research on Learning, 2008, which employs specific strategies for reading, remembering, writing, performing math operations, and demonstrating competence. These explicit approaches are useful to enhance success and confidence in students who are identified as gifted/LD.)
  • Teach self-regulation strategies such as chunking and setting short- and long-term goals (Zimmerman, Bonner, & Kovach, 1996)
http://ldatschool.ca/assessment/gifted-students-with-lds-what-teachers-need-to-know/

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Teachers' Gateway to Special Education

For more ideas on how to provide explicit instruction, and provide accommodations to meet the needs of students deemed gifted:

http://www.teachspeced.ca


Intellectual

http://www.teachspeced.ca/giftedness?q=node/707


Organizational Skills

http://www.teachspeced.ca/giftedness?q=node/715


Social / Emotional Skills

http://www.teachspeced.ca/giftedness?q=node/725


Time Management Skills

http://www.teachspeced.ca/giftedness?q=node/727

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Bees, Corinne. (2009). Gifted and Learning Disabled: A Handbook. The Advocacy Group for Gifted/LD. Vancouver, BC.

Twice Exceptional: Gifted Student with Learning Disabilities by Marcy J. Douglass, May 2007, and revised by Carol Tieso, April 2008.

Professionally Speaking ~ March 2012 - "Teaching The Gifted"

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Ontario Ministry of Education - Special Education Links

SPECIAL EDUCATION

Link to EDU Special Education: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/parents/speced.html

Link to Ministry of Education: http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/

Ministry Calendar of Education Events http://skills.edu.gov.on.ca/PLCalendar/MonthCalendar/search.aspx

Legislation http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca

Regulation 181 (Identification And Placement Of Exceptional Pupils) http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_980181_e.htm

Regulation 296 (Ontario Schools For The Blind And The Deaf) http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_900296_e.htm

Regulation 298 (Operation Of Schools — General) http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_900298_e.htm

Regulation 306 (Special Education Programs And Services) http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_900306_e.htm

Regulation 464 (Special Education Advisory Committees) http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_970464_e.htm

Regulation 374/10, (Supervised Alternative Learning and Other Excusals from Attendance at School)
http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/source/regs/english/2010/elaws_src_regs_r10374_e.htm

PPMs http://edu.gov.on.ca/extra/eng/ppm/ppm.html

PPM 1: Ontario Schools for the Blind and Deaf as Resource Centres

PPM 8: Learning Disabilities

PPM 11: Early identification of children's learning needs

PPM 59: Psychological Testing and Assessment of Pupils

PPM 76C: Alternative Educational Programs and Services for Deaf, Blind, and Deaf-Blind Exceptional Pupils

PPM 81: Provision of Health Support Services in School Settings

PPM 85: Educational Programs for Pupils in Government-Approved Care and/or Treatment Facilities

PPM 89: The residential demonstration schools for students with learning disabilities: General information and details of the referral process

PPM 127: The Secondary School Literacy Graduation Requirement (PDF, 88 KB)

PPM 131: Home schooling

PPM 140: Incorporating methods of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) into programs for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (PDF, 64 KB)

PPM 149: Protocol For Partnerships With External Agencies For Provision Of Services By Regulated Health Professionals, Regulated Social Service Professionals, And Paraprofessionals (PDF, 40 KB)

PPM 151: Professional Activity Days Devoted To Provincial Education Priorities (PDF, 48 KB)

PPM 155: Diagnostic Assessment in Support of Student Learning

PPM 156: Supporting Transitions For Students With Special Education Needs

Memos

Memo Summary (by month) http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/memos/

Funding Memos http://faab.edu.gov.on.ca/Memos.htm

Oct. 12, 2006: Special Education Transformation Initiatives

Dec. 19, 2011: Categories of Exceptionalities

Feb. 10, 2012: Elementary and Secondary Provincial Report Cards: Codes ALT and NM in place of Letter Grades and Percentage Marks

Aug 26 13: Draft: Supporting Minds An Educator's Guide to Promoting Students' Mental Health and Well-being (Supporting Minds)

Aug 29 13: Supporting Bias-Free Progressive Discipline in Schools: A Resource Guide for Schools and System Leaders

Sept 24 13: Supporting Continuous Improvement of Individual Education Plans (IEPs) and Transition Planning for Students with Special Education Needs through Learning for All K-12 Provincial Network Team

Sept 25 13: Memo: Creating Pathways to Success, Policy and Program Requirements, Kindergarten to Grade 12

Creating Pathways to Success, Policy and Program Requirements, Kindergarten to Grade 12

IPRC / IEP

Special Education, A Guide for Educators, 2001

Part A: Legislation and Policy (includes roles and exceptionalities) http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/speced/guide/specedpartae.pdf

Part D: The Identification, Placement and Review Process (includes timelines and info for Appeals, Tribunals)

http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/speced/guide/specedpartde.pdf

Part E: The Individual Education Plan (IEP) http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/speced/guide/specedpartee.pdf

The Identification, Placement, and Review Committee

The Individual Education Plan Process

The Education Act on Special Education

Individual Education Plans: Standards for Development, Program Planning, and Implementation

Individual Education Plan (IEP) Samples

The Individual Education Plan (IEP), A Resource Guide, 2004

Electronic IEP Template http://www.iep.edu.gov.on.ca/IEPWeb/ User Name: IEPDemo Password: demo

Principals Want to Know #11: Individual Education Plans: Principals' Roles and Responsibilities

Principals Want to Know #12: IPRC and IEP

Principals Want to Know #13: IEP Development and Implementation: Shared Solutions

Resolving Identification or Placement Issues (Procedures for Parents/Guardians)

Shared Solutions – A Guide to Preventing and Resolving Conflicts Regarding Programs and Services for Students with Special Education Needs

IEP 101 Workshop for Students and Parents http://www.ldao.ca/workshops-courses/iep-101-online-workshop-for-parents-and-students/

Ontario Special Education Tribunals http://www.oset-tedo.ca/eng/index.html

AUTISM

Effective Educational Practices for Students with ASD 2007 (http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/elemsec/speced/autismSpecDis.html

Making a Difference http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/nr/07.02/autismFeb07.pdf

Autism Intervention Program Guideline Revision http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/specialneeds/autism/programs.aspx

Connections for Students Supporting Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

http://www.ontariodirectors.ca/ASD/asd-english.html

MCYS Expanding Autism Services and Supports

http://news.ontario.ca/mcys/en/2010/12/ontario-helping-more-kids-with-autism-and-their-families.html

Applied Behaviour Analysis-based Services and Supports for Children and Youth with ASD

http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/specialneeds/autism/guidelines/guidelines-2011.aspx

Introduction to Autism: Free Online Series for Educators elearning.autism.net/en/

MENTAL HEALTH

School Mental Health ASSIST http://smh-assist.ca/

Children and Mental Health Webinar http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/memos/feb2012/soutien.html

http://conn-o.osapac.org/mh/

Draft: Supporting Minds An Educator's Guide to Promoting Students' Mental Health and Well-being (Supporting Minds)

Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health http://www.excellenceforchildandyouth.ca/

http://www.excellenceforchildandyouth.ca/about-mental-health/literacy

An Online Mental Health Resource Directory for Your Community eMentalHealth.ca

Children's Mental Health Ontario http://www.kidsmentalhealth.ca/

Hincks-Dellcrest, The ABC’s of Mental Health a Teacher’s Resource http://www.hincksdellcrest.org/

Respect, Recovery, Resilience: Recommendations for Ontario’s Mental Health and Addictions Strategy

http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/common/ministry/publications/reports/mental_health/mentalhealth_rep.pdf

Offord Centre for Child Studies: Centre of Knowledge on Healthy Child Development http://www.offordcentre.com/

Parents for Children’s Mental Health http://www.pcmh.ca/Ontario

Building Resilience in Young Children www.beststart.org/resources/hlthy_chld_dev/index.html

Canadian Self-Regulation Initiative http://www.self-regulation.ca/

Stepping Stones - A Resource on Youth Development
http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/documents/topics/youthopportunities/steppingstones/SteppingStones.pdf