The Nervous System

Ramona, Sarah, Laura, Zunaira & Hibba

What Exactly Is The Nervous System?

  • Responsible for everything you do!
  • Three basic parts: brain, spinal cord, nerves
  • Think of your brain as a control centre
  • Think of your spinal cord as a highway information can travel up and down
  • Think of your nerves as sub-roads that connect to the highway

What Does Your Nervous System Do?

  • Everything you consciously and subconsciously do - breathing, your heart beating, blinking, etc.
  • Intelligence, memory, learning, movement, basic bodily functions, and the senses are possible because of the nervous system
The Nervous System, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #8

Central Nervous System

  • Consists of brain and spinal cord
  • Primary commanding system
  • Protected by skull and spinal column
  • Parts are covered by tough tissues called meninges
  • Cerebrospinal fluids also provide protection

Peripheral Nervous System

  • Nerves that connect the rest of your body to the CNS
  • Relays information from a part of your body, up through your spinal cord, and registers it in your brain
  • Autonomic sub-system responsible for functions you don't think about, e.g., blood pumping
  • Somatic sub-system responsible for things you control at will
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Pain

Pain is our body's response to get us out of a potentially dangerous situation. It helps us prevent damage to our bodies. When we experience pain, we go through several stages.

#1: Contact with the "stimulus" - the object that endangers us.

#2: Reception - the nerve ending registers the information

#3: Transmission - the nerve relays this to the spinal cord

#4: Pain reception - the brain registers this information, and decides what to do, such as moving your hand away from the hot object you just touched

A problem concerning nerve damage is the body's inability to react to pain.

Nerves and Neurons

  • A neuron is an individual cell, and a nerve is a group of neurons
  • Sensory neurons send signals to the CNS
  • Motor neurons receive signals from the CNS
  • Neurons are the longest lived cells in your body
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Diagram Parts

  • Dendrites receive information from other neurons, or surrounding area
  • Axons transmit electrical impulses away from cell body to other cells
  • Information travels down axon, and hops from cell to cell
  • This process is called 'synapse'
  • Myelin sheath surrounds axon and transmits nerve impulses

Breakdowns of the System

Fun Facts

Nervous System Case Study
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What you're seeing here...

  • Immune system has begun to erroneously attack myelin, or protective sheath that covers neurons, causing damage in the brain.
  • This damages nerve signals in the brain! No wonder Ramona was experiencing forgetfulness and mood swings.
  • Inflammation has occurred, preventing the brain from communicating with the rest of the body.
  • Hint: you now know which part of the nervous system the disease affects.
  • Hint #2: we prescribed corticosteroids to stall inflammation of the brain.

What you're seeing here...

  • Plot twist! We did a test, and found out that the patient recently had measles.
  • This virus weakens the brain, and causes swelling. It also makes younger people more susceptible to diseases.

What You're Seeing Here...

  • High amounts of estrogen were found in the patient's urine samples.
  • This hormone helps regulate a female's sex drive.
  • Hint #3: Did you know, women are 2-3 times more likely to get a certain disease than men?
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What You're Seeing Here...

  • The x-rays are in... And it has been confirmed. Only the patient's central nervous system has been affected by whatever it is she has.
  • Here, the spinal cord has been slightly impacted due to myelin sheaths in its neurons being worn away.
  • The extent of her symptoms show that her disease has progressed really far!
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What you're seeing here...

  • More scans of the brain showing how warped it is.
  • You can see how poor her immune system is at defending against... Something.

What you're seeing here...

  • There is inconsistent damage between the patient's eyes - specfically her optic nerves. That explains the blurry vision!
  • Your final hint: Something has been targeting her nerves in particular. Any guesses?