Charles Darwin, known as the Father of Evolution, was a British naturalist who derived his theory after a trip to the Galapagos Islands. While there he noticed the many diversities among the species isolated on the island.
Evolution is change over time within a group of individuals. Natural selection(Survival of the Fittest) is a process by which evolution occurs, leading to the most favorable traits surviving and reproducing. Differing adaptations lead to a branch within a species, creating 2 seperate species over time.
Fossils, embryology, anatomy, and molecular evidence all point towards the process of evolution. Fossils provide tangible evidence of change within a species by displaying the changes and adaptations that have occured over time. Embryology show that most organisms are quite similar in the early stages of life, and is also represented by molecular evidence such as the trivial number of changes in DNA sequences between various species. The prescence of homologous and analogous structures represents evolution by showing the shared origins and functions of organisms.
Homologous and Analogous are two common ways to classify structures and relations between species. Homologous structures share a common origin and function. Analogous structures share only a similar function, having different origins.
Over time organisms are forced to adapt to their enviroments in order to survive. This genetic diversity is caused by either geographic of reproductive isolation which leads to new adaptations and evolutionary paths. Geopgraphic isolation is caused by a physical barrier seperating a population. Reproductive Isolation is caused by differences in genetics or behavior that prevent breeding between populations. These lead to new adaptations among the seperated species, which over time leads to the creation of new species.
Convergent and Divergent Evolution
Convergent evolution occurs when two unrelated species grow together in function over time due to identical enviromental pressures. Divergent evolution occurs when two related species undergo vastly different eviromental pressures, leading to varying adaptations.