Southern Colonies

Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia


Virginia was founded 1607 with the landing of the English settlers at Jamestown and ended with the established of the commonwealth of Virginia. Although Indian society existed thousand of years ago, war with European settlers and the introduction of new diseases that Indians had did not have any control over it. When summer droughts and cold winters came, many English colonists did not survive. Later on John Rolfe made a variety of tobacco plants and were sold well in England. In 1619 the first slaves were in Virginia. Most indentured servants worked on the tobacco field. In 1705 the Virginia colony became a slave colony. King James 1 of England issued the 1606 First Virginia Charter which created the Virginia Company authorizing eight Englishmen to colonize part of Virginia. After the wealth of Colonial America, the king failed their Charter. In 1624 King James made Royal Colony. The Colonial Governments were appointed by the crown, carrying out the orders of the crown. Religion in Virginia started when rich planters controlled the establishment of the Anglican Church. Baptist and Methodist preachers brought the Great Awakening welcoming black members. The law of the land from 1624 mandated that white Virginians worship in the Anglican church (Church of England) and support its upkeep with their taxes. English colonists made only fitful and often grudging efforts to bring blacks and Indians into the established church. The Powhatans and Indians further inland proved resistant to Christianity. The population in the 1600s was approximately 50,000 servants or three quarters of all new arrivals immigrated to the Chesapeake Bay colonies between 1630 and 1680. The ratio of men to women among servants in 1630s was six to one. In 1607 Powhaten Cheifdom Indians encompassed all of Tidewater Virginia from the Potomac River in the north to south of James River. Before the arrival of foreigners and their unknown diseases, the Powhatan Indians estamated 25,000.

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In 1634 Maryland was founded when the first colonists to Maryland arrive at St. Clement's island on Maryland's western shore and found the settlement of St. Mary's. In 1632 King Charles 1 of England granted a charter to George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimire, yielding him proprietary rights to a region east of the Potomac River in exchange for a share of the income Henrietta Maria, the queen consort of Charles 1. Planters in Maryland increasingly employed slave labor on farms and plantations and the black population grew rapidly in the 18th century. German immigrants began moving into western Maryland where wheat became the primary crop. The government of provincial Maryland was absolute, expressed the most extensive grant of royal powers to a colonias settlement. Lord Baltimore's main source of income as lord proprietory was the quitrent's settlers paid for their land in return. The population in Maryland was about 3,000 people due to diseases, war, and migration. Many Native Americans moved there to start a better life in the Chesapeake Bay area. Many Native American Indians groups like Powhatan, Acconannock, and Conoy moved there also. The Indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport like horses, and cattles, and diseases that affected the history of the Native Indians. As more English colonist moved to their area, Native Indians lost their land. After that they made a treaty exchange for peace. Maryland was founded as a haven for Roman Catholics, who still make up the largest single religious group in the states although ended in 1692. Alglicanism became the established religion. Laws against popery enacted by 1704 and Roman Catholic priests were harassed; the state constitution of 1776, however, placed all Christian faiths on an equal footing. The Toleration Act of 1649 was about how all Christians are worship to Maryland. The design of St. Mary's city was a literal separation of church and state their reinforced the importance of religious freedom.

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North Carolina

North Carolina was founded in 1653 by the Virginia colonists. There was no reason for its founding. North Carolina's economy concentrated on agriculture and developed the plantations exporting tobacco, cotton, corn, vegetables, grains, and fruits. North Carolina started out as a proprietary colony but obtained a royal charter in 1729 from George II. North Carolina had the largest Quaker population. In 1708, African American slaves was under 500 and grew every year until slave was abolished. The first successful and permanent settlement of North Carolina by Europeans began in 1653. The Tuscarora lived in peace with the European settlers who arrived in North Carolina for over 50 years at a time when nearly every year other colony in America was actively involved in some form of conflict with Native Americans. After the diseases and the villages of the Tuscarora were taking from them, they migrated north to New York. Many people were critical of the Anglican Church and formed their own religious organizations. One of the most important groups of religious dissenters, people who disagreed with the established church, was the Puritans. The Anglican people and the Puritans argued that Anglican ministers had too much power and that they prevented people from coming to understand the will of god for themselves. In 1664, Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia and one of the proprietors, appointed a governor for the province of Albemarle, which after 1691 was known as North Carolina.
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South Carolina

South Carolina was founded in 1663 by eight English nobles with a Royal Charter from King Charles II. The city of Charleston, named after the kind, was founded in 1700 by another group of English colonists. South Carolina was a colony valued for it's agriculture. South Carolina made their money by growing indigo (purple dye) and rice. South Carolina was a proprietary until it became unpopular. In November 1719, Carolina elected James Moore as governor and sent a representative to ask King to make Carolina a royal province with a royal governor. In the late 1700s, African American slaves represented the majority of the population in South Carolina. Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to migrate to South Carolina. Many tribes that once lived in South Carolina are now extinct. It happened mostly because many Europeans came and killed them and made them into slaves. The tribes were killed by European diseases, such as smallpox. South Carolina religion is the same as North Carolina. They gave ways to religious freedom for baptists and Anglicans. The same problems of religion was with North Carolina as well. The first settlers came to Province of Carolina at the port of Charleston in 1670, they were mostly wealthy planters and wanted slaves to come from British Caribbean. They started to develop their crops of sugar and cotton. They next overthrew the proprietors rule, seeing more representation. In 1729, South Carolina and North Carolina was split.
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Georgia was founded in 1732. James Oglethorpe was given a charter from King George II to create a new colony which he would name Georgia. It was to serve a place where prisoners could go to start a new and it served as a barrier against Spanish expansion from Florida. They made money by indigo, rice, tobacco, and farm products. Back in 1733 Oglethorpe could not approve to manage the proprietary colony and in 1752,, they submitted a deed to the crown. Georgia later on became a royal crown colony. Georgia populations was mostly African American slaves. It was least when the American Revolution started. It was estimated that about 3,500 people lived in Georgia. Many Trustees from Europe migrated to Georgia to offer them tools and tract of land. Creek were established in Georgia. The colonists and creek Indians exchange slaves and deerskin. Later on, Creeks traded cloth, guns, and rum. Georgia religion was a place for religious tolerance and religious pluralism. They provided liberty for all except Roman Catholic. Anglican and Jews were formed as a rich generation of religious ferment in the colony. They made a agreement where they could not support the Church of England but receive governmental funding for their own endeavors. Georgia became a less develop and less population since the Revolutionary War. They though restrained British trade regulation, they tended to sympathize with British interests because royal rule had brought prosperity for many colonists.
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