Testicular cancer

By Matt Greany and Jack Dutile

What is Testicular Cancer?

Carcinoma of the testes, also known as Testicular Cancer is a disease in the male reproductive organ called the testicles. The cancer cells in the testes divide uncontrollably which causes a tumor to form.


fig.1. Testicular cancer (right)

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of Testicular Cancer include:


  • lump in the testes
  • enlargement or shrinking of testicles
  • testicles feeling heavy
  • ache in groin/abdomen
  • pain/discomfort in testes
  • enlargement of breasts
  • pain in back
  • shortness in breath
  • chest pain
  • cough


Fig.2. Comparison (Left)

How Prevalent is this cancer?

You have a 1 in 263 chance of developing testicular cancer in your lifetime.

You are most likely to develop cancer around the age of 33, but can happen at any point.

in 2015 over 8000 cases have been diagnosed. About 380 of which proved fatal.

As this cancer is fairly easy to find and also to treat, the death rate is about 1 in 5000.

Testicular cancer is most prevalent in Scandinavian countries, lowest rates are in Asia and Africa, though there is also less data available for those regions.

How is Testicular cancer diagnosed?

Testicular cancer is diagnosed by a physician who looks at your family medical history and your personal medical history. The physician will then proceed to execute a physician exam to look for additional masses on the scrotum and the abdomen. Staging is the process that determines the course of treatment.

Methods:


  • Ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • Chest X-Ray
  • MRI
  • PET scan
  • Blood tests


Fig.3. Testicular Cancer ribbon (Right)

Causes of testicular cancer

Testicular cancer has no known causes, rates are somewhat higher for people taking steroids and those with a genetic cause, such as if your father or grandfather ever developed testicular cancer.

What is going on?

At the cellular level, testicular cancer usually starts as a cancerous germ cell, which rapidly multiplies in the testis, leading to a tumor. depending on what the tumor is, location, and size, it can cause a number of symptoms as listed above.

What are the treatments of Testicular cancer?

The four main treatments of Testicular cancer are:
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Bone marrow or Stem cell transportation


Surgery could remove the Testicle or the Testes. Radiation will remove the cancerous cells but, could also harm healthy tissue as well. Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment which uses one or more drugs because it is more effective. In a bone marrow transportation they remove stem cell and freeze them. Then the patient is given a large does of chemotherapy drugs. After the Chemotherapy the patient is given the stem cells through infusion.

Testicular Cancer

Sources

Works Cited

Frey, Rebecca J. "Testicular Surgery." Gale Cengage Learning. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&u=amhe95753rpa&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CWUOCHQ233687500>.


Nordqvist, Christian. "Testicular Cancer Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments." Medical News Today 14 Sept. 2015: n. pag. Health News. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/166993.php>.


"Our Adoption and Display of the Cancer Awareness Ribbon." South Florida Cancer Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.sflca.org/awareness_ribbon.html>.


Tasian, Gregory E. "What is Testicular Cancer?" Teen Health and Wellness: Real Life, Real Answers. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.teenhealthandwellness.com/article/329?search=testicular%20cancer>.


Swartout-Corbeil, Deanna, Rebecca J. Frey, and Melinda Oberleitner. "Testicular cancer." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Jacqueline L. Longe. 5th ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2015.Science in Context. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.

http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CILEYDZ167785776&source=Bookmark&u=amhe95753rpa&jsid=1277ecb2b3b0e856b31d6e38fd205df4


The credibility of these authors are good. Melinda Oberleitner is an associate dean in the College of Nursing and Allied Health Professions and a professor in the Department of Nursing at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Thus, making her qualified to write about Testicular cancer and what it really is all about. Rebecca J. Frey published UXL Encyclopedia of Diseases and Disorders which means that she is a credible source because an encyclopedia company hired her to write in their encyclopedia. I couldn’t find much information on Deanna Swartout-Corbeil so she might not be credible which could make this paper not credible but, given that the other two authors are qualified to be writing about Testicular Cancer I would imagine that she is credible too. Bias was not shown in this article because it is just informing us about Testicular Cancer and not giving an opinion. This source is also current because it is in the Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine in 2015. I got most of my information from this database and found it very useful for information on the EQ’s I had.


"Testicular Cancer." Www.cancer.org. American Cancer Society, 13 Feb. 2015. Web. 4 Jan. 2016. <http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003142-pdf.pdf>.


The american cancer society has been fighting cancer for years by way of funding research, providing help, and informing people about cancer in an effort to end it.

They provide a vast amount of information about all types of cancer, from thousands of studies, the report above contains information and references from 17 separate studies.

The ACS Is a credible source as they are dedicated to ending cancer so they keep up to date with the latest cancer research from around the world, and are unlikely to contain a bias that affects their writing and/or research. The article in question contains no specific reference to an author, and was likely put together by a department of people. It provided all necessary information for the EQ's I had and other sources confirmed what was stated in this article.