London Times

The Industrial Revolution

What is it?

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and then spread to Western Europe and the United States within a couple of decades. The Industrial Revolution was the beginning of new manufacturing systems from around 1760 to 1840. The Industrial Revolution happened because people had a demand for more easily accessible goods and things that before cost a lot of money because it came from other places. Manufacturing goods went from hand to hand methods of production to machine production, and iron production systems, and new chemical manufacturing, and improved water power. Textiles were the most dominant industry in the view of employment. Textiles were also the first industry to use more modern machines in there production. There was a Second Industrial Revolution that occurred in between the years 1840 to 1870. The Second Industrial Revolution had a technological and economic progress which helped in producing steam-powered boats, ships and railways.

The Inventor's Inventions

The first inventors of the Industrial Revolution were James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Edward Jenner, and Louis Pasteur. James Watt was a mechanical engineer who improved the Newcomen steam engine. With his improvements steams engines ran longer and wasted less energy. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which helped the production of cotton in the United States. Before the cotton gin it took many hours and hands to separate the seeds from the cotton. The cotton gin separated it for you which sped up the process. Henry Bessemer invented the first process for mass-producing steel. Henry Bessemer was given the pneumatic process of steelmaking from another inventor because that inventor went bankrupt. Bessemer expanded on the process though. With the industrial revolution many people went to live by the factories so many diseases started to pop up, which led to people trying to find ways to stop the diseases and help people. One of those people was Edward Jenner, who is considered the father of immunology because he created the vaccine for smallpox. He is known for his vaccine that he created because it saved the lives of many people. Another person who searched for answers for the diseases that popped up was Louis Pasteur. Louis Pasteur started the study of microbiology when he proved his germ theory of disease. He also created the vaccine for rabies.

How The Industrial Revolution Changed Things

Change in People's Life

The inventions that James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Edward Jenner, and Louis Pasteur created changed the way people did things. James Watt’s invention of the steam engine made it safer and more energy efficient to travel. People stopped having to prepare for long journeys to towns and cities because the train using his steam engine could take you there, and it was faster. Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin made it so it wasn’t as hard to get cotton and it required less people to do it. I think that this was a positive change because slaves were the ones working the fields and if less hands were needed the demand for slaves was not as high. Henry Bessemer’s invention of steel making changed the way people lived because they now owned things made of steel which was much studier that other things that they could have used. Steel also became less expensive because it was easier to manufacture with his process. I think this is a positive change because steel has stuck around for a long time and is used in a lot of products. Edward Jenner’s invention of the vaccine for smallpox changed the way people did things because they now no longer had to worry about smallpox. They went and took the vaccine, people stood in lines waiting to get the vaccine that would save their lives. I think the smallpox vaccine was a positive change because it saved people’s lives. Louis Pasteur’s theory on germ disease led to microbiology which scientist still study today. His invention of the rabies vaccine was a positive change because people wouldn’t die from rabies any more.

Changes to Society

Society was changed by the inventions of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Edward Jenner, and Louis Pasteur because the inventions caused the poor working class people to live in tight quarters. The workers needed to be near the factory just like every other worker and they lived near each other. Living in such tight quarters caused many diseases to strike up. The rich during the Industrial Revolution though built huge houses, some that looked like castles, and most of the time they owned the factories. Competitions for who could make the most money were going on between all these businesses and factories, and it caused the people who owned the factories to not really worry about the health and safety of their workers. Eventually public health acts were taken and it improved the life of the workers a bit. The inventions also helped in some ways. More people were able to get jobs, and with the vaccines coming out it allowed them to be a bit safer. The Industrial Revolution changed society into a place where the distinction between rich and poor was very obvious.

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