Outliers in ELT @Bilgi University

Fostering Autonomy with Today's Opportunities

What learner autonomy isn’t

•Learner autonomy is not self-instruction, nor self-access learning.

•Learner autonomy doesn’t mean that the teacher loses control and initiative in the classroom.

•Learner autonomy isn’t a new methodology.

•Leaner autonomy isn’t a single, easily described behavior.

•Learner autonomy isn’t a steady state achieved by certain learners.

Definition of Autonomy

•Holec (1981)

not inborn & obtained by formal learning

•Little (1991)

learner involvement & reflection &TL use

•Dickinson (1993)

learner training

•Benson & Voller (1997)

inborn capacity suppressed by educational institutions

•Toyoda (2001)

an ability and willingness to learn both independently and in cooperation with others.

Autonomous Learners

•know how they learn best

•are actively involved in learning tasks

•take risks

•make good guesses

•use the target language accurately and appropriately

•make connections with the other languages they know

•have a tolerant and outgoing approach to the target language

Versions of Autonomy


act of learning outside the classroom


capacity to take more responsibility


conditions that allow learners to control the

process and content of learning


Capacity to interact and collaborate with others

Benson & Voller (1997)

Reasons to Support Autonomy

Autonomy will help students to

•share their ideas

•learn from each other

•feel more secure and less anxious

•reflect on their learning

•involve in their learning process actively

•understand that it is the only way to learn successfully in the long term

Technology & English Language Learning

•Increasing Comprehensibility

•Increasing Interaction

•Making Learning Authentic

•Creating A Positive Learning Environment

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