Sudan

By: Madison, Alexa, and Kevin

When did colonization begin and how did it happen?

It all started with an Egyptian ruler who wanted to extend his power along the Nile Valley to the lakes along the equator. He then thought of the idea of annexing all the country between the Nile and the Indian Ocean. The first attempt at colonization came from the bordering country of Egypt. Muhammad Ali demanded that the Turo-Egyptian invade Sudan in 1820 in order to expand their large army. They also had private traders selling women and children into slavery and they imposed taxes on free people in Sudan in order to fund the colonization efforts. At the battle of Khartoum in the year 1885, the people following Mahdi killed the British general Charles Gordon. In 1898, more than ten years after the battle, Europe was looking to colonize different countries in Africa and decided to colonize Sudan after the anger still surrounding the death of the general. This is the transition that led to the colonization of Sudan under the power of the British. When Britain started to colonize Sudan, they had to find a way to destroy the hopes the French had of taking Sudan. So they launched this joint-ruling relationship with Egypt where they would each colonize Sudan together. One of the ways the British were able to conquer Sudan was they used the "divide-and-rule" policy in Sudan. They wanted the Sudanese to distrust, fear, and fight each other, instead of their colonizers.
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How was this colony governed? Who was in control in the actual colony?

Sudan was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt from 1899 to 1955, but the condominium actually ensured full British control over Sudan. It was a combination of indirect rule and direct rule, Sudan was controlled by a system of governors during the time of occupation by Britain and Egypt.

What were some of the major exports of Sudan?

Exports of Sudan included- live animals, meat, hide and skins, gum, and mostly oil.

What was life like for the native people of Sudan?

The natives of Sudan were turned against each other and were tricked into fearing, distrusting, and fighting each other instead of fighting the people who were colonizing them. They were subjugated by their colonizers and constantly living in a state of panic.

Were there any resistance movements?

There was little resistance to the condominium. Breaches of the peace usually took the form of intertribal warfare, banditry, or revolts of short duration.

How and when did the colony gain independence?

In February 1953 the UK and Egypt concluded an agreement providing for Sudanese self-government and self-determination. The transitional period toward independence began with the inauguration of the first parliament in 1954. On August 18, 1955 a revolt in the army in Torit Southern Sudan broke out, which although quickly suppressed, it had a low level of guerilla insurgencies by former Southern Rebels, and marked the beginning of the First Sudanese Civil War.


Sudan wanted for Egypt to officially separate from Sudan. The British finally withdrew in 1954, and on January 1, 1956, the Egyptian and British governments signed a treaty granting Sudan independence.