The 4 Types of Macromolecules

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids

CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for most plants and animals, as well as being used in many organic structures. Large carbohydrates are polymers called starches, and are made up of smaller monomers called sugars. They are usually made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a 1:2:1 ratio. Some uses are providing the cell with energy, regulating blood sugar, and building structures in the cell.

Examples: Glucose, Fructose, Cellulose

http://www.tuscany-diet.net/carbohydrates/classification-functions/

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PROTEINS

Proteins are made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Their monomers are amino acids. They are made using instructions from the cell's DNA and require an exact shape to work. Proteins do an incredible amount within the body, such as making enzymes to speed up chemical reactions,fighting diseases, and even energy if the body gets desperate.

Examples: Ovalbumin, Catalase, and Hemoglobin.

http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/eight-types-protein-function-4559.html

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LIPIDS

Lipids are made of hydrogen and carbon. They are used for long term energy storage, insulation, and structures such as the cell membrane.

Examples: Fat, Cholesterol, and Phospholipid

http://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Lipid-Biological-Functions.aspx

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NUCLEIC ACIDS

Nucleic acids are made of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. They make up DNA and RNA, and possibly ATP. They are made of little things called nucleotides.

Examples: Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine

http://biology.tutorvista.com/biomolecules/nucleic-acids.html

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