EGYPT

Ancient Egypt

SOCIETY

The ancient Egyptian people were grouped in a hierarchical system with the Pharaoh at the top and farmers and slaves at the bottom. The groups of people nearest the top of society were the richest and most powerful.

The diagram above shows the structure of ancient Egyptian society.


The Pharaoh was believed to be a God on earth and had the most power. He was responsible for making laws and keeping order, ensuring that Egypt was not attacked or invaded by enemies and for keeping the Gods happy so that the Nile flooded and there was a good harvest.The Pharaoh was believed to be a God on earth and had the most power.He was responsible for making laws and keeping order, ensuring that Egypt was not attacked or invaded by enemies and for keeping the Gods happy so that the Nile flooded and there was a good harvest.


The Vizier was the Pharaoh's chief advisor and was sometimes also the High Priest. He was responsible for overseeing administration and all official documents had to have his seal of approval. He was also responsible for the supply of food, settling disputes between nobles and the running and protection of the Pharaoh's household.


Nobles ruled the regions of Egypt (Nomes). They were responsible for making local laws and keeping order in their region


Priests were responsible for keeping the Gods happy. They did not preach to people but spent their time performing rituals and ceremonies to the God of their temple.

POLITYC

The government of Ancient Egypt depended on two important factors; the pharaoh and agriculture. The Pharaoh was a vital part of the the Egyptian government and he appointed the other officials during most periods. The highest officials took their orders directly from the king. Agriculture was the foundation of Egypt's economy and government.

ECONOMIC ACTIVIES



The Egyptian economy was based on the agriculture, which one was practising Nile the márgenes of the river. Was outlined the production of linen, barley, wheat, fruit trees and grapevine. The flood provoked by the Nile was fertilizing the land, then It was sowed scarcely spent the epoch of flood and was harvested in the dry epoch. The construction of dikes and channels of irrigation were fundamental to manage to obtain the necessary production of food to feed the people.

Since complement was growing up cattle, which was consisting of bovine copies, caprinos and porcine. Also there was practised the baby of birds and the fishing in the Nile. During the epoch of the floods, the peasants were dealing in handcrafted works and the construction of public works .

Egypt was possessing also quarries of stone in the valley of the Nile, and mines of gold and copper.

The commercial transactions were realized by means of barter since they were not knowing the currency.

RELIGION

The religion is a fundamental factor of the Egyptian culture and is very difficult to understand. It is a question of a polytheistic religion, but with trend to the monotheism since every nomos (or small region) had a god to the one that was producing worship principally and then it was producing worship to the others in a secondary way.

These divinities are represented as human figures by some symbols, though then some sincretizan. A few times have head of animal and other times only are represented by the animal form. There are two types of gods:

Local gods
Cosmics gods

The Egyptian art

The Egyptian art is a better acquaintance that that of other peoples of the Antiquity. It is owed essentially to two facts: the religious beliefs of ultratomb (numerous burials have remained) and to the employment of stone like material in the construction of his religious and funeral buildings (temples and tombs), which has awarded a great solidity and permanence. .

The Egyptian art stretches to the giantism, that is to say, many of his buildings and sculptures are of colossal dimensions.

The painting and the sculpture in relief used in temples and tombs, joined the employment of abundant hieroglyphs has allowed to know with great detail the history of the Former Egypt.

CULTURE

The Egyptian culture or culture of the Former Egypt, I develop in the valley formed by the river Nile placed to the extreme North-East of Africa. The river Nile crosses the territory of south to north making prosper the agriculture, the ranching and the navigation.