Language Arts

8th grade created by Joey Wallis

Chapter 1: The Sentence:


A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.

Ex.) Joey was chosen captain of his football team.


A subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.

~To find the subject, ask who or what is doing something or about whom or what something is being said.

Ex.) Where are your dogs, Joey?


~The complete subject consists of all the words that tell whom or what the sentence is about. The simple subjects is part of the complete subject.

~The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

EX.)The dog ran away.


~The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.

~The complete predicate consists of a verb and all the words that describe the verb and complete its meaning.

Ex.)Joey's dog loves ducks.

~Sometimes the complete predicate appears at the beginning of a sentence. In the following examples, vertical lines separate the complete subjects from the complete predicates.

Ex.)On the hill appeared a dog.

~Part of the predicate may appear on one side of the subject and the rest on the other side.

~The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.

~A simple predicate may be one-word verb, or it may be a verb phrase (a main verb and one or more helping verbs.

Ex.) These dogs are premature.

~The words not (-n't) and never, which are frequently used with verbs, are not part of a verb phrase. Both of these words are adverbs.

~The compound subject consists of two or more connected subjects that have the same verb.

Ex.)Jessie and Meaty ran across the yard.

~The compound verb consists of two or more verbs that have the same subject

Ex.) The dogs like to run and jump.

Chapter 2: Noun. Pronoun, and Adjective

The Noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, , a thing, or an idea.

Ex.)Person-Joey; place-Louisiana; thing-soccer; idea-happiness

Compound Noun- Is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun.

Ex.)Joey and Marlin play soccer.

Common Nouns-Names any one of a group of persons places, things, or ideas.

-A common noun generally does not begin with a capital letters.

Ex.) soccer, ball, or athlete.

Proper Nouns-Names a particular person, place, thing, or idea.

Ex.)Louisiana, United States, Joey Wallis

Concrete Nouns-Names a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell).

Ex.)Hummingbird, telephone, teacher, popcorn, ocean

Abstract Nouns-Names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or characteristic.

Ex.)Knowledge, patriotism, love, humor, self-confidence, beauty, competition

Collective Nouns- Is a word that names a group.

Ex.) Audience, Crew, and Faculty

A Pronoun-Is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

Personal Pronouns-Refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person).

Ex.)I, me, my, mine

Reflexive Pronoun-Refers to the subject and functions as a complement

Ex.)Myself, ourselves

Intensive Pronoun-Emphasizes a noun or another pronoun.

Ex.)Himself, herself

Demonstrative Pronoun-Points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.

Ex.)This, that, these, those

Relative Pronoun:Introduces a subordinate clause.

Ex.)That, whom, whose, which, who

Interrogative Pronouns-Introduces a question.

Ex,)What, which, who

Indefinite Pronouns-Refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.

Ex.)All, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone

Adjective-Is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Ex.)The best soccer player.

best and soccer describe player

Chapter 3:Verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, Interjection:

~A verb is a word used to express action or a state of being.


~A helping verb helps the main verb express action or a state of being. Together, a main verb and at least one helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb) make up a verb phrase.

Example-He has been in high school for one year.

~Action verbs-Is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.

~Linking Verbs-Connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. The noun, pronoun, or adjective that is connected to the subject by a linking verb completes the meaning of the verb.

Ex.) am, be, are, is, was, been

~An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Ex.)Where, when, how, to what extent

Examples:

Verb- I kicked the ball hard.

Linking verb- Joey was tired after playing basketball.

Transitive verb- Joey got hit with the ball.

Intransitive verb- When the dog died everyone was sad.

Adverb- Slowly the man curled down.

Preposition- The package under the tree is mine.

Conjunction- I wanted to go but i didn't.

Interjection- I love soccer

Chapter 4: Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements:

A complement is a word or a word group that completes the meaning of a verb.

EX .Marlene brought sandwiches


A direct object is a noun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

EX.Our history class built a model of the alamo.


An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects

EX. sarita brought us a chess set.


A subject complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and that identifies or describes the subject.

EX.The lemonade tastes sour


A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.

EX. My aunts nieces is she


A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

EX. This chili tastes spicy.

Chapter 5: Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases:

* A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.

Ex.Participial Phrase-Monkeys swinging through the dense jungle.

* A Prepositional Phrase includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

Ex. Prepositional Phrase-A message from the other members of the football team.

*A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

Ex. Are you good at football?

* A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective.


  1. Present participles end in -ing
  2. Most past participles end in -d or -ed some. Some past participles are irregularly formed.

Ex. The winning football team is more excited then the other team.

* A participle phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.

*A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun.

Ex.-Fishing is my favorite thing to do.

* A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a noun.

* The infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to.

Ex.) To play football you have to train hard.

*An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

Chapter 6: Independent and Subordinate Clauses:

* A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

Ex.)The Saints won their game-independent; after their loss.

* An Independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Ex) I love the Saints.

* A Subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Ex.) After the Saints game,

*An Adjective Clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun.

Saints, which is my favorite won the Superbowl.

Relative Pronouns: An adjective clause is usually introduced by a relative pronoun.

Examples: That, which, who, whom, whose

An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Chapter 7: The Four Basic Sentence Structure:

*A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.

Ex.) Joey and Grant play football.

* A Compound Sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses.

* A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

Ex.)Joey and Grant play football, and they play baseball.

*A complex sentence-contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

* A compound-complex sentence:Contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

Chapter 8: Subject and Verb; Pronoun and Antecedent:

Chapter 8 Review:

Number:

  • When a word takes no indicate whether the word is singular or plural.

  • When a word refers to one person, place, thing, or idea it is singular in number. When a word refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea, it is plural in number.

Agreement of Subject and Verb:

  • A verb should agree in number with its subject.

  • Singular subjects take singular verbs. (dolphin-eats)

  • Plural subjects take plural verb. (senators-oppose)

  • In a verb phrase, the first helping verb agrees in number with the subject.(He is building a bird feeder.)-The singular helping verb is agrees with the plural subject they.

Problems in Agreement:

  • The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase or clause following the subject. (The distance between the two posts is eight feet.)

Indefinite Pronouns:

  • The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, nothing, no one, one, somebody, someone, and something.

(Everyone was invited to the celebration)

  • Pronouns like each and one are frequently followed by prepositional phrases. Remember that, for these pronouns, the verb agrees with the subject of the sentence, not with a word in a prepositional phrase.

  • The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, and several.

(Both of the apples are good.)

  • The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.

  • Often, the subject in a prepositional phrase that follows the pronoun indicates whether the pronoun is singular or plural. Usually, if the object of the preposition is singular, the pronoun is singular. If the object is plural, the pronoun usually is plural.

Ex.)All of the fruit looks ripe.


Compound Subjects:

  • Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb.


  • Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or or nor take a plural verb.


  • When a singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb.

Ex.)Neither the manager nor the employees want to close the store early.


Other Problems in Agreement:

  • When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure the verb agrees with it.

Example) Here is my seat-Here are our seats


  • The contractions don’t and doesn’t should agree with their subjects.

Ex.)These gloves don’t fit.


  • The word doesn’t is a contraction of does not. Use doesn’t with all singular subjects except the pronouns I and you.


  • A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning in a sentence.

  • The singular form of a collective noun names a group of persons, animals, or things.

  • A collective noun is singular when it refers to the group as a unit.

  • Plural when it refers to the individual parts or members of the group.

Ex.)The science class are working on their astronomy projects.


  • An expression of an amount ( a measurement, a percentage, or a fraction, for example) may be singular or plural, depending on how it is used.

  • An expression of an amount is singular when the amount is thought of as a unit.

  • Plural when the amount is thought of as separate units.

  • A fraction or a percentage is singular when it refers to a singular word and plural when it refers to a plural word.

  • Expressions of measurements ( such as length, weight, and area) are usually singular.

  • Some nouns that are plural in form take singular verbs.

  • However some nouns that are plural in form and that name singular subjects take plural verbs.

  • Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work (such as a book, song, movie, or painting) or the name of a country, city, or organization generally takes singular verb.

  • A verb agrees with its subject but not necessarily with a predicate nominative.

  • A pronoun should agree in both number and gender with its antecedent.

Ex.) Brylan lost his book.

  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor.

  • Use plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.

  • Some indefinite pronouns are plural, some are singular, and some may be either.

  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, verybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.

  • The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, and several.

  • The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence.

  • Either a singular or a plural pronoun may be used to refer to ac collective noun, depending on the meaning of the sentence.

  • An expression of an amount may take a singular or plural pronoun, depending on how the expression is used.

  • Some nouns that are plural in form take singular pronouns.

  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to the title of a creative work (such as a book, song, movie, or painting).

  • Use a singular pronoun to refer to the name of a country, city, or organization.

Chapter 9: Principle Parts Regular and Irregular Verbs, tense voice:

* The four principle parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.

*A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

*Irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

*The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or state of being expressed by the verb.

Ex.)Past, past perfect, present perfect, present, future perfect, and future.

* Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.

* A verb in the active voice expresses an action done by its subject. A verb in the passive voice expresses an action done to its subject

*Sit and set-The verb sit means "to rest in an upright, seated position" or "to be in a place" sit seldom takes an object. The verb set means "to put something in a place.. Set usually takes an object. Notice that set has the same form for the base form for the base form, past, and past participle.

Ex.) Donald Trump had to sit because his back was hurting.

Donald Trump set the coffee on the table.

Chapter 10: Case forms of pronouns:

* Case is the form that a noun or a pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words in a sentence. In English, there are three cases: nominative, objective, and possessive.

* A predicate nominative should be in the nominative case.

* A direct object should be in the objective case.

* An indirect object should be in the objective case.

Ex.) Coach gave them a pep talk.

* An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.

* The personal pronouns in the possessive case- my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs.


  1. The possessive pronouns mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs are used as parts of a sentence in the same ways in which pronouns in the nominative and the objective cases are used.
  2. The possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, its, our, and their are used before nouns to show ownership or possession.

* The use of who or whom in a subordinate clause depends on how the pronoun functions in the clause.


* A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers.

Chapter 11: Comparison and Placements:

* A modifier is a word or word group that makes the meaning of another word or word group more specific. Two parts of speech are used as modifiers; adjectives and adverbs. Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

* If a word in the predicate modifies the subject of the verb, use the adjectives. If it modifies the verb, use the adverb form.

*Good is an adjective. It should be used to modify a noun or a pronoun. Use well to modify a verb.

* Good should not be used to modify a verb.

* Well may be used either as an adjective or as an adverb. As an adjective, well has two meanings: "in good health" or "satisfactory".

*The three degrees of comparison are the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.


  1. Most one syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by adding -er and the superlative degree by adding -est.
  2. Two syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by adding -er or using more and form the superlative degree by adding -est or using most.
  3. Modifiers that have three or more syllables form the comparative degree by using more and the superlative degree by using most.

Chapter 12: Common Usage Problems:

  1. A, an- Use a before words beginning with a consonant sound. Use an before words beginning with a vowel sound.
  2. Accept-except-Accept is a verb that means "to receive". Except may be either a verb or a preposition. As a verb, except means "to leave out" or "to exclude": as a preposition, except means "other than" or "excluding".
  3. Ain't-Avoid using this word in speaking and writing: it is nonstandard English.
  4. All ready, already-All ready means " completely prepared".
  5. All right- Used as an adjective, all right means "well enough". All right should be written as two words.
  6. A lot- should always be written as two words.
  7. Among-See between, among.
  8. Anyways, anywheres, everywheres, nowheres, and somewheres-Use without final s.
  9. Because- see reason.... because
  10. Between, among- Use between when referring to two things at a time, even when they are part of a group containing more than two.
  11. Bring-take-Bring means "to come carrying something". Take means "to go carrying something". Think of bring as related to come and of take as related to go.
  12. Bust-busted:Avoid using these words as verbs. Use a form of burst or break or catch or arrest.
  13. Doesn't-don't: Doesn't the contraction of does not. Don't is the contraction of do not. Use doesn't, not don't, with he, she, it, this, that, and singular nouns.
  14. Fewer-Lees: Fewer is used with plural words. Less id used with singular words: Fewer tells "how many"; less tells "how much".