Animal Farm & Russian Revlolution

How thier charatcers and people relate to each other

How Aniaml Farm compares to The Russian Revolution

One night, all the animals at Mr. Jones' Manor Farm assemble in a barn to hear Old major, a pig, describe a dream he had about a world where all animals live free from the tyranny of their human masters. old Major dies soon after the meeting, but the animals — inspired by his philosophy of Animalism — plot a rebellion against Farmer Jones. Just like the revolution swept through the farm in 1917, two revolutions swept through Russia, ending centuries of imperial rule and setting in motion political and social changes that would lead to the formation of the Soviet Union. In March, growing civil unrest, coupled with chronic food shortages, erupted into open revolt, forcing the abdication of Nicholas II (1868-1918), the last Russian czar. Just months later, the newly installed provisional government was itself overthrown by the more radical Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924).

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Animalism compared to Communism

Animalism

  • A philosophy that is created by the pigs. It is defined by its seven commandments that preach about equality between animals.

  • All humans are enemies.

  • The animals are never to live in houses, sleep in beds, wear clothes, drink alcohol, smoke tobacco, touch money or engage in trade - these are all the evil habits of humans



Communism

  • a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

  • Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto considered to be the great piece of propaganda of all time.

  • Communism would be a cycle of Revolution. First, the owners would have control (Monarchy, Dictatorship). Next the workers or the population unite as one an teardown the owners. Then, the workers form a dictatorship until the society is reform the then dictator steps down.
  • 'Beasts of England' - The song 'Beasts of England' is a metaphor for the ideology of Communism
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Mr. Jones Represents Tsar Nicholas II

Mr. Jones

  • The often drunk farmer who runs the Manor Farm before the animals stage their Rebellion and establish Animal Farm.

  • Mr. Jones is an unkind master who indulges himself while his animals lack food.

  • Him and his wife abandoned the farm in the beginning of the revolution but, then Mr.Jones return with other men to try to reclaim it, but are unsuccessful.

Tsar Nicholas II

  • was the last emperor of Russia

  • Nicholas II ruled from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917

  • Nicholas II abdicated following the Revolution of 1917 during which he and his family were imprisoned.


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Old Major represents Karl Marx


Old Major

  • A wise and persuasive pig, old Major inspires the rebellion with his rhetorical skill and ability to get the other animals to share his indignation.

  • His speech about the tyranny of man is notable for its methodical enumeration of man's wrongs against the animals

  • His leading them in singing "Beasts of England" is another demonstration of his rhetorical skills, for after he teaches the animals the song about a world untainted by human hands, the animals sing it five times in succession.

Karl Marx

  • In 1848, Marx and fellow German thinker Friedrich Engels published “The Communist Manifesto,” which introduced their concept of socialism as a natural result of the conflicts inherent in the capitalist system

  • The Prussian government intervened to get Marx expelled from France, and he and Engels had moved to Brussels, Belgium, where Marx renounced his Prussian citizenship.

  • In 1847, the newly founded Communist League in London, England, drafted Marx and Engels to write “The Communist Manifesto,” published the following year


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Snowball represents Leo Trotsky

SnowBall

  • The pig who challenges Napoleon for control of Animal Farm after the Rebellion.

  • Snowball is intelligent, passionate, eloquent, and less subtle and devious than his counterpart, Napoleon

  • Wins the loyalty of his followers until Napoleon overthrows him.


Leo Trotsky

  • Trotsky was one of the original revolutionaries. But as Stalin rose to power he became one of Stalin's biggest enemies, and was eventually expelled from the Politburo in 1925 - one year after Stalin took control of the nation

  • he was also exiled from the minds of the Russian people - His historical role was altered; his face cut out of group photographs of the leaders of the revolution

  • was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army


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Napoleon represents Joseph Stalin

Napoleon

  • The pig who emerges as the leader of Animal Farm after the Animal Rebellion.

  • Napoleon uses force instead of reason to control his people.

  • He is crafty and wants to run the farm his way no exceptions.


Joseph Stalin

  • the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953

  • Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower

  • He ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign
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The Birds represent several classes of citizens "left out" of socilish rhetoric

Birds
  • From the beginning felt that the rebillions motto exculded them

  • Squealer set them at ease by explaining, "A bird's wing, comrades, is an organ of propulsion and not of manipulation. It should therefore be regarded as a leg

  • Became the way that the word of the rebellion spread to other farms

Classes of Citizens

  • Most of the communistic slogans dealt with the 'proletariat' - which was primarily a reference to urban factory workers not other classes

  • The rural farmers, the clergy, the 'intelligentsia', and other 'non-labour union' types probably felt left out

  • Most were severely burdened after the revolution





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The raven Moses symbolizes the Russian Orthodox Church

Moses

  • The tame raven once was compion of Mr. Jones

  • Spreads stories of Sugarcandy Mountain, the paradise to which animals supposedly go when they die.

  • At first Napoleon tried to get rid of Moses. But eventually Moses was allowed to stay on the farm and was even given a small ration of 'beer'.

Russian Orthodox Church

  • Russian Orthodox church is largest autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, Eastern Orthodox church in the world. Its membership is estimated at between 40 and 80 million.

  • Christian denomination entailing them to believe in a beautiful heaven a beautiful place in which you go when you die

  • Worship is considered the very center of church life in Eastern Orthodoxy, embracing the seven sacraments.

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Hens represent the Peasant Farmers

Hens

  • In the beginning of the revolution is helpful and continues to lay eggs for the animals

  • Napoleon calls for the hens to 'surrender their eggs'. The hens attempted to resist the order at first, but they were eventually starved into submission.

  • Nine Hens died of being starved to death

Farmers

  • Stalin's attempt to collectivize the peasant farmers of Russia

  • Ukrainian farmers would slaughter their own livestock before joining a collective as a form of protest. So many farmers engaged in this practice, that livestock in the Ukraine dwindled by 50%-80% between 1928 and 1935.

  • It is estimated that somewhere between 4 and 10 million Ukrainian peasants were starved to death by Stalin




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The sheep represent the masses at large

Sheep

  • Went along with Napoleon blindly through the good and bad and never missed the opportunity to chant "Four legs good, two legs bad! Four legs good, two legs baaaad!" The masses

  • Many people fought and died for the Russian revolutionary cause not only on the front lines but on the home front

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Squealer represents Vyacheslav Molotov

Squealer

  • The silver-tongued pig Squealer abuses language to justify Napoleon’s actions and policies to the proletariat by whatever means seem necessary

  • Manipulated the Seven Commandments by adding extra words to it fooling the simple minded animals of the farm

  • Convinced others to follow Napoleon by justifying his action

Vyacheslav Molotov

  • Vyacheslav was one of the leaders of the illegal revolutionaries’ organization of his school, and in 1909 he was arrested for anti-government activity and exiled to the Vologda Region in northwestern Russia.

  • In December 1930 Molotov headed the Soviet government. He sincerely believed that reprisals were necessary for overcoming opponents of Soviet power.

  • Was in charge of making Stalin look good





The dogs represents the NKVD

The Dogs

  • Taken away from their mother just a few days old the dogs were raised by Naploen to become his own private armies

  • The dogs bully Snowball off the farm

  • They are a constant reminder of Napoleon's power and threaten the animals if they get out of line

NKVD

  • At the time was Joseph Stalin’s secret police

  • Inflicted such large-scale purges, terror, and forced depopulation on the peoples of the Soviet Union,

  • The secret police remained the most powerful and feared Soviet institution throughout the Stalinist period



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Overall

In both the book and the revolution both of the ruler become so powerful that they turn on the very people who gave them their power. Orwell’s goal in writing Animal Farm was to portray the Russian Revolution of 1917 as one that resulted in a government more oppressive, totalitarian, and deadly than the one it overthrew. Many of the characters and events of Orwell's novel parallel those of the Russian Revolution. By depicting a long and hard event in through the simple nature of animals it can give people a better understanding of what happened.