History of DNA

Famous Scientists

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel, also known as "the father of modern genetics", discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments. Around 1854, Mendel began his experiments. His experiments didn't seem to work so it resulted in 8 years (1856-1863) in more experiments with multiple plants. With the help of his pea experiments, he discovered the laws of inheritance. He discovered that genes come in pairs and are inherited as distinct units, one from each parent.

Fredrick Griffith

Griffith was the one who first realized that DNA had a genetic code. in 1928 he performed an experiment using pneumonia, bacteria, and mice giving him his theory. Transformation was process where one strain of a bacterium absorbs genetic material from another strain of bacteria and “turns into” the type of bacterium whose genetic material is absorbed. Scientists didn't believe him since DNA was poorly understood.

Oswald Avery

Avery worked on many strains of bacteria, applying different chemical methods. In 1913, published a clinical study of the tuberculosis bacterium. His research began the modern phase of DNA research.

Erwin Chargaff


Erwin Chargaff was a famous biochemist who helped with the research of DNA. Chargaff discovered the two rules that helped lead to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA. He explained that organisms are made of different DNA's. It made DNA have more responsibility for genetic material than proteins.

Rosalind Franklin

Since the age of 15, Franklin knew that she wanted to be a scientist. In 1951, she was given a scholarship to research DNA and help solve a problem. When taking pictures of DNA fibers, Franklin discovered something. She concluded the basic dimensions of DNA strands, and that the phosphates were on the outside.

Maurice Wilkins

Wilkins was a professional physics scientist who was eventually sent to California from Europe to do more research on DNA. in 1943, he began using X-rays to produce images of DNA molecules. HIs X-rays were used to prove the 3-dimensional helical nature of DNA.

James Watson

Watson is a very curious person even as a young age. His favorite word was even, "why". He was fascinated of the idea that genes and chromosomes hold onto the key of life. In 1950, with the help of Francis Crick, they created the first accurate model of DNA which helped scientist understand the structure.

Francis Crick

Crick and Watson teamed up to create the model of DNA. After the double helix model, there were still questions about how DNA directed the synthesis of proteins. Crick and other scientists wanted solve the riddle of RNA structure, and to understand the way it builds proteins.