BIM 1 Articles 9.4

J.J. Vasquez, Jr.

Down Syndrome Awareness

Genes carry the codes responsible for all of our inherited traits and are grouped along rod-like structures called chromosomes. The nucleus of each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of those are inherited from each parent. Down syndrome is when an individual has a full or partial extra copy of the 21st chromosome. This alters the course of development and shows the characteristics associated with Down syndrome. A few of the physical traits are low muscle tone, small height, an upward slant of eyes, and a single deep crease across the center of the palm - although they are all different and not all characteristics will show.

One in every 691 babies in the the United States is born with Down syndrome It is the most common genetic condition. About 400,000 Americans have Down syndrome and about 6,000 babies are born in the United States each year.

For a long time, people with Down syndrome (DS) have been alluded to in art, literature and science. John Langdon Down, an English physician, published an accurate description of a person with Down syndrome. It was his work, published in 1866, that earned Down the recognition as the “father” of the syndrome. Although other people had previously recognized the characteristics of the syndrome, it was Down who described the condition as a distinct and separate entity.

Currently, advances in medicine and science have enabled researchers to investigate the characteristics of people with Down syndrome. In 2000, an international team of scientists successfully identified each of the approximately 329 genes on chromosome 21. This accomplishment opened the door to great advances in Down syndrome research.

Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease (CHD) ncludes abnormalities in cardiovascular structures that occur before birth. These defects occur while babies are developing in the uterus. It can affect about 1 in 100 children. CHD may produce symptoms at birth, during childhood, or not until adulthood. Some congenital defects may cause no symptoms. About 500,000 adults in the U.S. have CHD.

In most people, the cause of congenital heart disease is unknown, but there are some factors that can increase the chance of having CHD. These risk factors are: enetic or chromosomal abnormalities in the child, such as Down Syndrome, taking certain medications or alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy, maternal viral infection in the first trimester of pregnancy. The risk of having a child with CHD may also double if a parent or a sibling has a congenital heart defect.

The following are different types of CHD:

Heart valve defects. These can result in a narrowing or stenosis of the valves, or a complete closure that impedes or obstructs forward blood flow. Other valve defects include leaky valves that don't close properly, thereby allowing blood to leak backwards.

Defects in the walls between the atria and ventricles of the heart Holes or passageways between the heart’s different chambers may allow abnormal mixing of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood between the right and left sides of the heart.

Heart muscle abnormalities that can lead to heart failure.

Congentital heart disease may be diagnosed before birth, right after birth, during childhood, or not until adulthood. It is possible to have a defect and no symptoms at all. In adults, if symptoms are present, they may include: shortness of breath, limited ability to exercise

Congenital heart disease is often first detected when your doctor hears an abnormal heart sound. Further testing can be performed through:


Cardiac catheterization

Chest X-ray

Electrocardiogram (EKG)


Treatment is based on the severity of the congenital heart disease. Some mild heart defects do not require any treatment. Others can be treated with medications, procedures, or surgery. Patients should be monitored closely constantly.


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Technology as a Learning Tool

Some research has shown that educational technology increases 4th and 8th grade students' mathematical understanding, whereas others proved less effective. More specifically, computer-based applications that encouraged students to reason deeply about mathematics increased learning, where applications that promoted repetitive skill practice and proved more entertaining for students actually decreased performance in students. On the other hand, a meta-analysis of more than 500 research studies of computer-based instruction found positive results on student achievement tests due to computer tutoring applications. Other uses of the computer, such as simulations and enrichment applications had minor effects.

Three reasons for these are: a greater variation in the ways schools use technology, successful use of technology is always accompanied by concurrent reforms in other areas such as curriculum, assessment and teacher professional development, and isolated effects of technology are expensive and difficult to implement, so few have been conducted.
This research shows limited conclusions about the overall effectiveness of technology, but data suggests that certain computer-based applications can enhance learning for students at various achievement levels. Not only can technology help children learn things better, it also can help them learn better things.
Based on the research to date, the strongest evidence showing positive gains in learning tends to focus on applications in science and mathematics for upper elementary, middle, and high school students.

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Writing the Perfect Resume

Resume Tips for High School Students

Include All Your Activities. Draw upon all aspects of your life which show you have the right character, work ethic, skills and personality to succeed in a job. This means that your resume will likely be devoted more to school activities, volunteer work, academic and athletic pursuits than actual paid employment.

Make an Outline. Make a list of all possible experiences to include in your resume before you do the rough draft of yoiur resume.

Promote Your Attitude and Performance. Employers will be most interested in your work habits and attitude. If you have good attendance or punctuality for school or jobs you might include language like "compiled a perfect (or near perfect) record for attendance and punctuality". If teachers have recognized you for a positive attitude or outstanding service you should make reference to that in your description.

Use Action Verbs. Use active language when describing your experiences so you are portrayed in a dynamic way. Start the phrases in your descriptions with action verbs like organized, led, calculated, taught, served, trained, tutored, wrote, researched, inventoried, created, designed, drafted, edited and so on. Employers look for staff who have a history of making positive contributions. Review your experiences to see if there were any minor achievements in class, clubs, sports or the workplace as you carried out your role.

Proofread your Draft. Review your draft very carefully before finalizing your document and make sure there are no spelling or grammatical errors. Ask your guidance counselor, parents or a favorite teacher to proofread your resume. Include any challenging advanced academic projects since this shows employers that you are competent and hardworking.

Review Resume Samples. It's always helpful to review resume samples to see what the final version of your resume should look like. Go online to search for these samples.

Ask for Recommendations. Ask teachers, coaches, volunteer supervisors and activity advisors when you develop a positive relationship. You could even create a personal website and make copies of these recommendations and place a link to the site on your resume. Bring paper copies of recommendations with you when you visit employers and speak with managers.

The Best Diet and Exercise Plan

I believe that the best diet plan to remain healthy is to eat anything you want, but in small servings. The key is to be consistent and not give up on it. This diet also must include eating a lot of fruits and vegetables so that your metabolism can improve. This will surely avoid eating too much fat. As you notice pounds being lost, that is your motivation to continue staying healthy. It is best to lose weight slowly, but surely. Of course you must also avoid eating too much sugar.

A great part of this plan is exercise. Besides eating healthy, we must exercise for at least 30 minutes a day so that our metabolism can be faster and we can lost weight more easily. Staying active during the day no matter what you're doing, will ensure a healthy and long life.

Creating Tables in Word

Creating tables in Word is one of the easiest things to do. You can use this function to create all types of lists for groceries, class rosters, budgets, tasks, etc. The basic steps to follow when first creating tables are below:

  1. Click where you want to create a table.
  2. Click Insert Table on the Standard toolbar.
  3. Drag to select the number of rows and columns you want.

Please see attached video for more complex and specific steps.

Creating Tables with Word

The Life of Jackie Robinson

Jackie Robinson became the first black player in the major leagues in 1947, signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers. He was named Rookie of the Year in 1947, National League MVP in 1949 and a World Series champ in 1955.

Jackie Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia. Jackie Robinson became the first black player in the major leagues in 1947, signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers. He made advancements in the cause of civil rights for black athletes. In 1955, he helped the Dodgers win the World Series. He retired in 1957 with a career batting average of .311. Robinson died in Connecticut in 1972.

Robinson was named to Baseball's Hall of Fame.

Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier. He became the first African-American to play in baseball's major leagues. The youngest of five children, Robinson was raised in relative poverty by a single mother. He attended John Muir High School and Pasadena Junior College, where he was an excellent athlete and played four sports: football, basketball, track, and baseball. He was named the region's Most Valuable Player in baseball in 1938.

HIs older brother, Matthew Robinson, inspired Jackie to pursue his love for athletics.

Jackie attended the University of California, Los Angeles, where he became the university's first student to win varsity letters in four sports. In 1941, he was forced to leave UCLA right before graduation due to financial hardship. He moved to Honolulu, Hawaii, where he played football for the semi-professional Honolulu Bears. His season with the Bears was cut short when the United States entered into World War II.

From 1942 to 1944, Robinson served as a second lieutenant in the United States Army. His courage and objection to segregation were the beginning of his iimpact in major league baseball. In 1944, Robinson began to play baseball professionally. At the time, the sport was segregated, and African-Americans and whites played in separate leagues. Robinson began playing in the Negro Leagues, but he was soon chosen by Branch Rickey, president of the Brooklyn Dodgers, to help integrate major league baseball. He joined the all-white Montreal Royals. Rickey knew there would be problems so he asked him not to not fight back when confronted with racism. At times even some of his new teammates objected to having him on their team. Jackie and his family received threats. Athletically, Robinson had a great start with the Royals, leading the International League with a .349 batting average and .985 fielding percentage.

During one infamous game, Chapman, the Phillies manager, and his team shouted derogatory terms at Robinson from their dugout, but Dodgers manager Leo Durocher informed them that he would sooner trade them than Robinson. His loyalty to the player set the tone for the rest of Robinson's career with the team.

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The Jackie Robinson Story (1950)

JJ Vasquez, Jr.

United High School