North&South Ancient Civilizations
The Ancient Tribes
The Anasazi tribe were ancestors of the Pueblo. They constructed dams, ditches, and canals so they could trap the rain from tops of mesa and channel to the gardens of the canyon floor. Their houses were made of stone and adobe. They were multi-storied and apartment-like structures. They lived along walls or cliffs. A massive complex of more than 1000 people were the Pueblo Bonito in the heart of civilization in Chaco Canyon. The craftsmen made turquoise jewelry, woven baskets, and pottery. From Pueblo Bonito they built the roads for their trading networks. Late groups such as Hopi and Zuni heavily influenced art and architecture. They left perhaps of many droughts.
The Adena tribe were collectively known as the Eastern Woodlands people. They lived i the Ohio Valley region around 700 BC. Crops they grew included barley, squash, gourds, and sunflowers. They produced fine pottery and exquisite copper jewelry. They elaborated burial mounds made up of log structures covered by piles of Earth.
The Hopewell tribe was also collectively known as the Eastern Woodlands people. They arrived in the Ohio valley around 300 BC. Sometimes they bulit mounds that were 40 feet high and 100 feet wide! Some artifacts found suggest an extensive trade network. The Adena and Hopewell tribes both referred to as "Mound Builders."
They arrived in the Mississippi valley by 800 AD. They had plants that were used for many foods and when added maize and beans had an increase in population. The increase in the population caused need for more land. More land resulted in numerous cities with up to 10,000 people, and the largest was Cahokia that was located near present-day East St. Louis. In the center of city of Cahokia's was a massive mound approximatly 100 feet high base of more than 14 acres.