VCR Lesson 7

Rebecca Iyoob

Fill in the blank with the correct word

Tony had the ____________ to stand up against the thug trying to steal his money.
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The word



  1. Arrogance; excessive self-assurance; unbecoming boldness
  2. Grounds for belief; assumption or supposition

Definitions not in the book:

  1. In law, an inference required or permitted by law as to the existence of one fact from proof of the existence of other facts
  2. an assumption, often not fully established, that is taken for granted in some piece of reasoning
  3. Unwarrantable, unbecoming, or impertinent boldness

Other Forms

presume, v.

presumptive, adj.

presumptuous, adj.

presumptuousness, n.

Roots and origins

Sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptum (L.) "to take," "to obtain"

1175-1225, meant "seizure and occupation without right" also "taking upon oneself more than is warranted," from the Old French presumcion and directly from the late Latin praesumptionem meaning "confidence, audacity," and in classical Latin, "a taking for granted, anticipation"


First Definition:

  • Arrogance
  • Assurance
  • Boldness

Second Definition:

  • Assumption
  • Premise
  • Basis


First Definition:

  • Cowardness
  • Fear
  • Humility

Second Definition:

  • Fact
  • Reality
  • Knowledge

additional information

In law, a presumption of a particular fact can be made without the aide of proof. The types of presumptions are rebuttable discretionary presumption, a rebuttable mandatory presumption, and an irrebuttable or conclusive presumption.

Choose the sentence in which the word is used incorrectly

A) The little boy had the presumption to stand up against the bully at school.

B) The presumptuous student believed that he knew more than the teacher and always tried to outsmart her.

C) The government presume that the man was guilty ignored some of the evidence that could have proved his innocence.

D) The rebuttable mandatory presumption was used during the case so that the facts of the case could be used without proof.

the answer is C because the word is used in the verb form, but is acting as an adjective in the sentence.